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How have transnational NGOs and social movements impacted countries that practice female circumcision - Term Paper Example

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Instructor Name: How have transnational NGOs and social movements impacted countries that practice female circumcision Female circumcision is the practice of removing external female genitalia either partially or completely for non medical reasons…
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How have transnational NGOs and social movements impacted countries that practice female circumcision
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Download file to see previous pages According to the World Health Organization, approximately 140 million girls have been circumcised all over the globe, of which about 92 million are believed to be from Africa. (Female Genital Mutilation, World Health Organization, February 2012). The origin of female circumcision is not known for sure, however some scholars on the subject speculate that this practice has its origins in the time of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs. This belief is corroborated by the fact that some ancient Egyptian female mummies were found to be circumcised. In today’s times female circumcision is commonly practiced in many parts of Africa. This practice is promoted in three ways by the people who propagate it. The Sunna type where the clitoris is excised, the clitoridectomy type where the clitoris and minor labia are excised and the infibulations type where the whole clitoris and all the labia are cut off. (M. A. Dirie and G. Lindmark, 1992). The practice has however, been reinforced by Islamic tradition due to the belief that circumcising women dampens their sexual desire and leads to less promiscuous behavior generally. (Asaad M.B, 1980). Countries and cultures that advocate the practice believe that performing the procedure tunes down a woman’s libido. The opposition for female circumcision presents a strong case. ...
According to the World Health Organization, female circumcision has no health benefits what so ever and is only a cause of damage. It is apparent with simple deduction that since the practice removes healthy female genital tissue for no medical reason; it will interfere with their normal bodily functions in addition to being the host of a bunch of diseases and infections. There can be instantaneous consequences like pain, shock, hemorrhage or tetanus etcetera or long term consequences which might include bladder and urinary tract infections, cysts, infertility and child birth complications etcetera (Female Genital Mutilation, World Health Organization, February 2012). However, debates regarding this issue are messy because of the cultural, religious, social and political connections to the issue of female circumcision on the side of the advocates of this procedure and thus, reaching a solution is a very complex course of action. The medical views on female circumcision are shrouded with confusion because they don’t understand the reason why people do it if it has such dangerous health implications. What needs to be done is that people should look at this practice through a cultural lens to understand its significance and why it means so much to the cultures and people who practice it. Firstly, they look upon this as a necessity according to what their beliefs have taught them. Second, this practice has different meanings for different cultures and people, third, although people who are against this practice to promote gender equality the women it is practiced upon don’t think of it as an infringement of their rights. Although this practice originated from the patriarchal society, it is women that have ensured that it keep being practiced to date. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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