THEORY INTEGRATION ON 3 TERRORISM CASES This paper seeks to find a holistic understanding of terrorism, supported by the varied political theories which try to explain it. A general hypothesis shall be set, followed by validating this hypothesis in the case of three examples of terrorism…
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The theories on terrorism are also too varied, such as to defy an integrative understanding of the phenomenon. This paper will therefore explain the orthodox and non-orthodox theories on terrorism, applying these to three known cases of terrorism. Analytical discussion will try to show that the hypothesis is valid and relevant. Orthodox terrorism theories Terrorism is a highly debatable issue. Its complexity emanates from the primeval nature of man to sow lethal violence against his kind. It is estimated that the 18th century French Revolution gave impetus to modern terrorism that led to the upsurge of contemporary terrorism with its state, interstate and global dimensions. Thus far, orthodox theories on modern terrorism have been used to understand cases of terrorism, but these have been subjected to debates. In an in-depth analysis, Jason Franks opened up a discussion of the Orthodox Terrorism Theory or theories, proposing a more comprehensive non-orthodox understanding of the phenomenon which be applicable in the many years to come. For Franks, the Orthodox Theory is capable of answering the questions what makes up terrorism and how it can be countered. However, he notes that the Orthodox Theory fails to adequately answer why it happens. ...
o coerce and intimidate governments to accept political, religious or ideological objectives, and secondly in defence of the terrorist act as when Hezbollah leader Sheikh Fadlallah described terrorism as “fighting with special means against aggressor nations in religious and lawful warfare against world imperial powers.” ( Kramer n.p.). The situation shows that it is difficult to establish a sound foundation for research and policy on terrorism. This may also suggest that resolving the phenomenal rise of terrorism may continue to meet difficulties in the times ahead. To be fair, the Orthodox Theory on Terrorism has merits. It comprises the western model of understanding terrorism along the human ideals of liberty, rule of law, and democratic life in society. It is also a practical concept in dealing with acts of terrorism as threats to state authority. The Orthodox Theory has laid down three useful themes on terror acts, namely (a) Functional, as embodied by the Theory of Provocation, or the belief that terrorism aims to provoke a response from a repressive state by means of strategies that will radicalize citizens against government (Laqueur 72) (b) Symbolic or the explanation that terror acts have image- value under the idea of “terrorism in theatre” (Jenkins 132), and (c) Tactical as terrorists use strategies along short-term objectives such as hijacking, as well as long-term objectives to advancing the broader cause of revolution. In spite of merits derived from the Orthodox understanding of terrorism, Franks perceives that this approach needs to be improved owing to the new terroristic environment which has pushed terrorism beyond the state into interstate and global boundaries. The alternative terrorism theory Improving on the orthodox theory, Franks
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