Free

Abnormal Psychology - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The nutshell of behaviorism is the ancient philosophy of post hoc ergo proctor hoc, which is cause and effect. Thus, behaviorism looks at the cause of behavior – such as the behavior of eating has the cause of being hungry…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.4% of users find it useful
Abnormal Psychology
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Abnormal Psychology"

Case Study Project Part Patient’s Background Patient’s Sue Disorder of disorder) Bi-PolarDisorder Criteria for the disorder that the patient meets (based on the DSM-5 classification of the disorder) Primary symptoms are manic or rapid cycling episodes of mania and depression. Mania might be characterized by decreased need for sleep, increased self-esteem, more talkative than usual, flighty ideas, distractibility, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities. Criteria for the disorders that the patient does not meet (based on the DSM-5 classification of the disorder) Patient’s symptoms 1)No sleep in five days. 2)Heightened state of activity which she describes as out of control. 3)Strange and grandiose ideas which are mystical or sexual. 4)Room in disarray with frantic and incoherent messages written on the walls and furniture. 5)Depression symptoms include insomnia, poor appetite and difficulty concentrating. Also contemplated suicide. Patient’s main problem (including any emotional problems and abnormal behavior ) Acute mania. Patient isn’t sleeping and is having grandiose and strange thoughts. She is also disorganized and in a disarray. Part 2: Psychological Model/Theory for potential causes Compare and contrast the psychological approaches of the Psychological Tradition (psychoanalysis, humanism, and behavioral). (approximately 200 words) The nutshell of behaviorism is the ancient philosophy of post hoc ergo proctor hoc, which is cause and effect. Thus, behaviorism looks at the cause of behavior – such as the behavior of eating has the cause of being hungry. A person who speaks sharply to a friend does so because that person is angry, etc. Behaviorism is also concerned with innate behavior, which is behavior that is instinctual or reflexive. A behavior may become innate or reflexive through the process of operant conditioning, which is a process by which behavior is strengthened by its consequence (Skinner, 1974). If the behavior elicits a response, or operant, that is positive, then the consequence of this positive response is that the behavior is likely to be repeated. Psychoanalytic theory is another mode of psychological theory. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the founder of this theory, and the theory arose out of psychiatric developments during the late nineteenth century. Freud pioneered psychoanalysis as a study of the conscious and unconscious mind, as well as the therapy for this. He became interested in the underpinnings of psychoanalytic theory when he studied male hysteria, which was in response to trauma. His theory was that memories are repressed, which means that they are not accessed by the conscious mind, but reside entirely in the unconscious mind. These repressed memories are then converted into hysterical symptoms as a mode of release for them. Freud then came to theorize that the repressed memories are not memories at all, but, rather, desires of the patient. Freud also coined the term Oedipus Complex, to describe repressed wishes and desires that a boy has for his mother, which is sexual, and for his father, who is a threat for the boy’s feelings towards the mother (Murray, 1983). Humanists believed that behaviorists and psychoanalysts were being too simplistic, and that there was much more to being human than these two theories allowed. The humanists believed that, far from being ruled by the terms of operant conditioning or by their Id, Ego and Superego, humans live life with purpose and meaning. Explain which one of the psychological approaches you believe is best applied to understand the patient’s disorder. (approximately 100 words) Probably behaviorism, although this is problematic. Behaviorism has more to offer the patient than the other two theories, because the patient might have problems being med. compliant, and this is the reason why she is having these manic and depressive episodes. With behaviorism, people can be trained to behave differently, and that would mean that, in the case of the patient, she can be trained to take her meds properly. That said, the best approach with this patient would be to approach it more from a physiological point of view. Her problem is organic and chemical, not psychological, so this is the best approach to take with her. Part 3: Genetic and Environmental Influences Discuss what studies show about whether genetic or environmental factors contribute the most in the development of the disorder. (approximately 150 words). There is an interrelationship between the two. The reciprocal gene-environment model states that people are genetically determined to create environmental risk factors that trigger the genetic vulnerabilities. In other words, people might be genetically predisposed to create their own problems. Moreover, social and cultural influences might lead to mood disorders - for example, young girls might be depressed because they feel pressure to look a certain way because society dictates this. Young men may also feel pressure to attain certain goals which are impossible, and this might lead to mood disorders. That said, there are some strictly genetic causes, which include changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, and there is a problem with signal-sending brain cells. Adding to the environmental problems, some patients may engage in negative thinking which exacerbates their condition, and can make them hopeless. Many people with bipolar disorder have this kind of negative thinking and the problems that come with it. Explain and justify whether you support the research suggesting which factor (genetic or environmental) plays a bigger influence in the development of the patient’s disorder. (approximately 50 words) I believe that genetics play more of a part than environmental factors. This is because the problems that cause bipolar disorder are physiological more than psychological. Bipolar often runs in families, and this suggests a strong case for genetic predisposition. While I do believe that environmental factors might make a person with bipolar disorder worse, and worsen their symptoms, I do not believe that environmental factors can cause bipolar disorder. Part 4: Treatment Plan Discuss what types of medical approaches (ECT, prescription medications, or psychosurgery) you recommend for the patient based on studies showing its effectiveness in treating the disorder. (approximately 100 words) The main thing that I would prescribe for the patient would be drug therapy. This would include anti-psychotic drugs combined with other kinds of mood stabilizers. In addition, I would prescribe that the patient make some kinds of common-sense lifestyle changes – this would include dietary changes, increased exercise, and perhaps seek out alternative therapies such as acupuncture and meditation. It would be a holistic approach that way. Moreover, there should also be some kind of psychological component as well – this is to ensure that the environmental stressors and triggers which might make the disorder worse can be lessened. This would mean that the patient should seek some kind of psychological counseling and be enabled to handle stress well. Compare and contrast the side effects the patient may experience and what benefits these medications have on the brain chemistry or neurotransmitter activity. (approximately 100 words) Mood stabilizers are to be used, and not antidepressants. This is because bipolar depression is different from regular depression, and antidepressants may actually make the symptoms of bipolar worse. Mood stabilizers balance neurotransmitters that control emotional states and behavior. Other drugs may be used to prevent rapid cycling between moods. The side effects of some drugs, such as lithium, might include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, trembling, increased thirst, weight gain, drowsiness, a metallic taste in the mouth, and abnormalities in both kidney and thyroid function. Explain which psychotherapy and techniques you recommend for the patient. Explain how the chosen therapy and techniques will help the patient to manage his or her symptoms (outcome). (approximately 150 words) I would go with cognitive behavioral therapy. This would mean that the patient will change his or her thoughts by changing is or her behavior. This would include eliminating negative self-talk, and other kinds of behavior modification that might be causing cognitive issues. The way that this would help the patient manage symptoms is by giving the patient a better outlook that is less negative, and this would help to ease the feeling of hopelessness that bipolar patients often have. This might also help with any possible suicide ideation that the patient might have, because eliminating negative self-talk may also extend to eliminating suicidal thoughts. This might also be combined with talk therapy, which might help with psychological issues while also helping the patient to pinpoint the problems that she has in everyday life. This can show her how to cope, and the cognitive behavioral therapy may also show her how to cope. Provide both short and long-term goals for the patient’s treatment plan. Include accomplishments or behavioral changes you want to see in the patient. (approximately 50 words) In the short term, and in the long term, first and foremost, the patient must take her medication on a regular basis. She must be med compliant – that is most important. Therefore, the short term goal would be that she buys a pill dispenser and installs some kind of reminder for her to take her meds. The reminder might be on her phone or some kind of an alarm. The long-term goal is that she becomes med compliant for life. Part 5: Conclusion Defend your treatment plan by explaining how the proposed treatment plan would best help the patient compared to another form of treatment. (approximately 100 words) The treatment plan proposed would best help her because it focuses upon the physiological issues that bipolar patients have. This would mean the issues that have to do with the chemical imbalance in the brain. This would be better than other approaches that might include focusing only on the psychological issues, because these other approaches do not take into account the fact that the patient has problems with neurotransmitters in their brains. Moreover, this approach is balanced, in that it recognizes that environmental stressors might play a part in worsening the symptoms, so it addresses this as well. However, by focusing up the physiology of the brain, this approach recognizes that this is where bipolar disorder forms, and it addresses this core issue. References American Journal of Psychiatry 2000, Evidence of Brain Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder. Oct 04, 2000. Lauren B. Alloy, Temple University; Lyn Y. Abramson, University of Wisconsin–Madison; Patricia D. Walshaw and Amy M. Neeren, Temple University; Cognitive Vulnerability to Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2006, pp. 726-754 Phillip W. Long, M.D.; Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthmia), Internet Mental Health: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-md04.html, 1995-2011 http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mood-disorders?page=2 2005-2013 References: WebMD, http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mood-disorders?page=2, 2005-201 Charles F. Gillespie, MD, PhD, Charles B. Nemeroff, MD, PhD; Early Life Stress and Depression; CurrentPsychiatry, Vol. 4, No. 10 / October 2005; http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/index.php?id=22661&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=169044 Assessment of Psychological Disordershttp://www.funnelbrain.com/c-18344-diathesis-stress-model.html, 2010 Assessment of Psychological Disordershttp://www.funnelbrain.com/c-38860-reciprocal-gene-environmental-model.html, 2010 Breaking Ground, Breaking Through: The Strategic Plan for Mood Disorders Research http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/strategic-planning-reports/breaking-ground-breaking-through--the-strategic-plan-for-mood-disorders-research.pdf, January 2003 Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Abnormal Psychology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1486361-abnormal-psychology
(Abnormal Psychology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1486361-abnormal-psychology.
“Abnormal Psychology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1486361-abnormal-psychology.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal Psychology

...?Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology is a complex topic. There are different models of abnormality, and different ifications. The models of abnormality are medical, cognitive, behavioural and psychodynamic. The medical model assumes that abnormality may be treated like a physical disease. The cognitive model aims to change one’s thoughts. The behavioural model aims to change one’s behaviours. Moreover, there are classifications of abnormality, which is dictated in Britain by the ICD. These are all explained further in this essay. Also, there are singular ideas put forth by Szasz and Rosenhand...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Abnormal Psychology

...? Abnormal Psychology Abnormal Psychology Introduction Abnormal psychology is a branch that deals with abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. The study usually covers areas such as depression, compulsion, obsession, sexual deviation, and other behavioral disorders. In this field of study, there are usually clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors, and psychotherapists who offer counseling, diagnosis and treatments. This is the reason as to why Mr. and Mrs. Lowson decided to take their 4-year-old daughter, Clara, to a psychiatrist after realizing that their daughter is developing abnormal...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Abnormal Psychology

...? Abnormal Psychology Declaimer This study seeks to highlight Ludwig Van Beethoven’s psychological condition via using varied credible sources with an intention of creating an informative literature. Mainly, this entails utter evaluation of key sources’ content against the conventional argument presented by numerous and varied authors. Since, some authors owing to the Ludwig Van Beethoven’s incredible success in his career while experiencing systematic illness, may end up exaggerating their content to appear more reliable compared to their counterparts’ sources (Burroughs, 2009). Therefore, this study’s content comprises of crystallized information from varied sources but not a physical...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Abnormal psychology

...Abnormal psychology Jack the Ripper The fact that Jack the Ripper was never identified and in the absence of prior clinical assessment records that provide a detailed explanation of his past personal history and family history, it proves difficult to provide an accurate diagnosis of his mental state. None the less, it is possible to make presumptions pertaining to the underlying factors that predisposed him to proceed with the “canonical murders”, which involved the murder of five female prostitutes. Jack the Ripper’s victim choice, his mutilation techniques (also referred to as his Mondus Operundus or MO) help to shed some light on factors that might have triggered his personality disorders; which in my...
3 Pages(750 words)Case Study

Abnormal Psychology

... Abnormal Psychology The first change in our view οf panic disorder and the models we utilize to try to understand it involves the data reviewed in this volume by Craske, and to a lesser extent by Shear and Mammen and by Lydiard and Brawman-Mintzer, which place a clear focus on the childhood antecedents οf the adult anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder and social phobia. The work οf Kagan, Reznick, and Snidman (1988) and others has documented that the relatively stable early childhood behavior pattern that Kagan et al. call behavioral inhibition may be one οf the best predictors οf adulthood anxiety disorders. It is probably the best illustration οf a temperament potentially involved in the etiology οf these disorders... in the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Abnormal Psychology

...Running Head: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Anxiety disorder: A review and a case study examined Anxiety disorder: A review and a case study examined Anxiety disorders have a great variety of symptoms and manifestations which cannot all be either controlled or diagnosed for the cause of the symptoms. Some disorders have a direct association to the cause, while others appear to manifest randomly through undetermined stimulus. Anxiety disorders can be classified into two groups that are defined by continuous symptoms or episodic symptoms (Gelder and Mayou, 2005, p. 75). The nature of the disorder can be manifested through four different types of symptoms. The first type of symptom is mental anxiety which is usually...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report

Abnormal Psychology

...Due: Personality disorder: Alcohol dependence Introduction A serving of wine during dinner, a cocktail at a gala night event, a beer with friends, people interact with alcohol on many platforms. Alcohol makes its appearance in various parts of our lives. As easy as it is to ask for a second round, people forget that alcohol is addictive; physically and psychologically. Research from the National Health Service (NHS) indicate that men exhibit signs of alcohol dependence twice as much as women do. What alcohol dependence means is that; drinking alcohol becomes an essential factor in an individual’s life in such a way that the individual feels that he/she cannot function without it (Maars, and Jeffrey, p 16). Degrees of...
2 Pages(500 words)Personal Statement

Abnormal psychology

...Abnormal Psychology Introduction In 1976, the American vigilante film Taxi driver was released. The film was directed by Martin Scorsese. The audience considers Taxi Driver as one of the paramount film that can last invariably on the mind of people. One of the utmost influential protagonists of the film is Travis Bickle. Travis is 26 year old man returned to New York and applied for job as a cab driver. Mentally Travis Bickle was ill and never part of this usual world. The mental issues and monotonous personality of Travis were pivotal reasons to be in the war. The character of the individual is further exposed during the progress of the film. The obsessive psyche and loneliness lifestyle of Travis Bickle...
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment

Abnormal psychology

... _______________________________________________________ Panther ID: ___________________________________________________ PSYC 3140 Abnormal Psychology FINAL EXAM Read each question carefully and completely, and choose the best answer. 1. Which of the following is/are true of psychosis? a. Psychosis may be substance-induced or caused by traumatic brain injury b. Individuals may experience delusions and hallucinations c. Individuals experience function impairment d. All of the above e. B & C only 2. Rates of schizophrenia are higher among which socioeconomic group? a. Upper b. Upper-middle c. Middle d. Lower e. Rates are equal among socioeconomic groups 3. According to the Downward Drift theory… a. Individuals with schizophrenia... ...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Abnormal Psychology

...Abnormal Psychology al Affiliation Article 2 Question The study was not bias by not including boys. This is due to the fact that there is no big sex difference for cases of eating disorders. Cases of binge eating and anorexia have been found to be more prevalent among the girl population (Boone, Soenens, & Luyten 2014). However, the difference is not very much. By focusing on only the population which has the higher number of cases anorexia, the authors were able to provide a clear insight into the issue without being said to be biased. The findings that were obtained among the girl population can easily be applied to the boy population owing to the fact that about 0.3 percent of both sexes are normally affected for their lifetime... , they...
2 Pages(500 words)Article
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Abnormal Psychology for FREE!

Contact Us