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Investigation into the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on delay induced deficits in the novel object recognition in t - Literature review Example

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Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease Introduction Alzheimer’s disease is a disease, which has no cure and eventually leads to death. The brain disorder is mostly related to old age and many people believe that the disease is resulting from stress…
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Investigation into the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on delay induced deficits in the novel object recognition in t
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Download file to see previous pages The mutations alter the arrangement of the protein folding hence leading to malfunctioning. Despite the early symptoms and manifestation of the diseases being similar to stress, the disease is not emanating from stress. Some of the symptoms of the disease include memory loss during the early stages. Execution of movements also starts to change and is affected at the start of the disease. Older memories are not affected so much but the newly learnt memory is what is affected at the early stages of the disease (Wozniak M, 2008). As the disease is progressing people affected with the disease will most of the time require assistances since they are unable to execute most the duties independently. As the disease advances and enters into a moderate state, most people are unable to speak well. Patients suffering from the disease also encounter difficulties of paraphrasing words since confusion about vocabularies develop. Dissolution begins and loss of insights creep in s the disease advances. At certain conditions, urinary incontinence may develop. Due to this condition, most caretakers are advised to reduce tension and stress on the patient’s side. Change of environment from one place to another also helps in improving the status of the caretakers and the patients. The patients totally depending on their caretakers characterize the advanced stage of the disease. There is also complete loss of speech while understanding and communicating begins to be a total failure for these patients. Performance of simple tasks such as eating also fail and the muscles weakens completely (McLean SL, 2008). Pathophysiology The disease occurs due to the missfolding of proteins in the brain. The proteins in question include amyloid beta and amyloid tau (Wendler A, 2012). The plaques that affect the brain are made up of 39-43 amino acids, which are small peptides from beta amyloid. Beta amyloid is a precursor of a larger protein in the brain by the name trans membrane protein. The membranous protein has the ability of penetrating through the neurons. The membrane plays a significant role in the survival and growth of neurons. It helps in protecting neurons, survival and helps in post injury repair of neurons. For the case of Alzheimer’s disease, the membrane is affected and it breaks down into small fragments, which affects the neurons. These effects can be translated to loss of memory and inability to carry out certain tasks mainly due to inactive neurons. The breakdown or the fragmentation of these protein leads to formation of the plaques known as senile plaques. The protein tau becomes affected by undergoing chemical changes. Tau protein has the function of protecting microtubules that holds the fibrils of the axon an important component of the neuron. When the neurons are broken down into smaller fragments they are incapacitated hence cannot send various messages to the brain (McLean SL W. M., 2009). The subcortical regions in the brain are the major area that is affected by Alzheimer's disease. The cerebral cortex is affected when the neurons and the synapse fail to work and are completely lost. The effect of this loss results in gross atrophy in the regions that have been affected. This disease also affects the temporal lobe in addition to parietal lobe. The left sphere of the brain is also affected especially the cingulate gyrus. The frontal cortex of the brain are amongst the important regions that are affected by these disease. Scans by analysts and doctors ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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