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Macular degeneration - Research Paper Example

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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Macular Degeneration Introduction Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), describes a number of pathology, but highly common conditions, which affect the macular that is a part of the retina of the eye (Holz et al…
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Download file to see previous pages 101). Pathology of macular degeneration is progressively becoming a common phenomenon because of increased physician access, patient awareness, treatment and percentage of the population at risk for this health condition (Jager et al. 358). This is an indication that macular degeneration is a significant challenge to doctors, patients and the community since the cost of delivering quality health care has increased considerably. Additionally, macular degeneration is a significant health problem because it decreases the quality of life by blurring central vision in the central vision. This usually prevents people from performing many tasks such as reading, recognizing and driving. Therefore, this paper primarily describes macular degeneration with a focus on its symptoms, causes and treatment. Symptoms The symptoms for this condition usually develop progressively, and these are noticeable through vision changes. These include increased blurriness of printed words; difficulty in recognizing faces; the need for brighter light when performing a close work; difficulty in adapting to dim lights; a decrease in the brightness and intensity of colors; blind or blurred spot in the center of field of vision; impaired central vision; and hallucination of people or geometric shapes, in a situation of advanced macular degeneration (Holz et al. 139). ...
Causes Macular degeneration results when a portion of the retina gets impaired. The retina is part of the interior layer of the eye that is made up of nerves and receptor cells, which receive and relay light signals from the eye through the optic nerve to the brain for interpretation (Holz et al. 188). On the other hand, macula is the central portion of the retina, and it is involved in recognition, color vision, and detailed. Age-related macular degeneration is the significant cause of blindness, in the U.S., in people older than 55 years (Jager et al. 358). It also affects more than 1.75 million people per year, in the United States (Jager et al. 358). This number is expected to increase to approximately 3 million people by 2020 owing to the overall increase of life expectancy and rapid aging of the U.S. population. The dry form of age-related macular degeneration (atrophic) is caused by the gradual impairment of cells in the macula region that results into steady blurring of the central vision. The onset of this condition is characterized by single or multiple yellow-white spots called drusen, which are located on the outer retina (Jager et al. 358). Advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy) is caused by prolonged wasting changes in the sensory retina and nerves. Abnormal blood vessels that grow under the center of the retina cause wet form or exudative/neovascular form (Holz et al. 188). These blood vessels usually bleed, leak and from scar in the retina thus destroying and distorting central vision. This condition usually begins in one eye and may later spread to the other eye. Dry form also develops more rapidly than the dry form. Test and Diagnosis Physician may conduct a number of tests to diagnose dry macular degeneration and ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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