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See attachment SCIN132 - Research Paper Example

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Coronary Heart Disease Name: Institution’s name: Heart ailments and cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in the U.S. It is a common myth that heart problems target the old and the obese only, but in reality; just about anyone is prone to develop heart problems…
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Download file to see previous pages Atheromatous plaque deposits in the arteries, which gradually narrows down the arteries. The coronary arteries which supplies blood to the heart to enable smooth working of the cardiac muscles, fail to supply enough blood to the heart causing a number of complications. CAUSES OF PLAQUE ACCUMULATION The pathogenesis of the disease is not known however there are two proposes hypothesis that explain the accumulation of plaque on the artery walls. The first hypothesis is the Lipid hypothesis. The Lipid Hypothesis was proposed by Rudolf Virchow and according to this hypothesis high dietary intake of saturated fats increases LDL levels in the body which promotes lipid penetration into the walls of the coronary artery. The oxidized LDL cannot be easily removed and hence keeps on accumulating in the arteries. The other hypothesis which was proposed by Ross and Glomset is called the chronic endothelial injury hypothesis according to which the Atheromatous plaque is formed when the GAG layer of the arterial walls uncovers the walls causing accumulation of oxidized LDL’s in the walls. EFFECT ON PATIENTS Atherosclerosis mainly affects the patient in three ways causing further complications. Firstly, the patient experiences Angina or a sharp pain in the chest. Angina occurs at times of increased physical activity like exercising, walking or running. The increased physical activities demand an increased supply of oxygen; however, the presence of plaque on the arterial walls fails to provide the required supply of blood. Therefore, the cardiac muscles experience a sudden cramp which is felt by the patient as a sharp pain in the chest or on the upper arms. The pain subsides once the activity is stopped. Atherosclerosis also causes myocardial infarction, popularly known as heart attack. Coronary infarction occurs when the cardiac muscles of the heart are permanently damaged. When the fatty plaques block the entire artery thereby stopping the flow of blood to the heart, some cells of the heart die giving rise to a dead patch in the heart. The effect of this dead patch in the heart is dependent on the location of the patch. The pain experienced by the patient during myocardial infarction is somewhat similar to the pain experienced in Angina except for the fact that it is prolonged in this case. The most important and dangerous consequence of plaque formation is sudden death of the patient. The heart muscles stop functioning entirely owing to the formation of blood clots in the plaques (Calnan, 1991) STATISTICS The American Heart Association in collaboration with CDC and NIH brings together the most recent statistics of heart disease every year. According to the recent statistical analysis “more than 2200 Americans die of CVD each day, an average of 1 death every 39 seconds” (Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics,2011). In total, almost 82 million U.S citizens suffer from this disease. According to a survey conducted by the National Health and Nutrition Examination, it was seen that men were more prone to CHD than women. SURGICAL TREATMENT OPTIONS Surgical treatments are available to alleviate the symptoms of the disease. A patient may opt for Coronary Artery bypass surgery where blood vessels are taken from other parts of the patient’s body and used to bypass the blocked artery. Another option is a fairly new one and is known as TransMyocardial Laser ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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