This paper has been written in an attempt to discuss the overall anatomy of the heart and the path of blood flow. This research is also being carried out to evaluate anatomical cardiovascular concepts to get an idea about heart diseases…
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This research will begin with the statement that human heart is a muscular organ which is also the most vital element in the human body. It functions as the blood pumping station that ensures continuous blood circulation through the cardiac circle. Since the heart is the vital and sole organ that pumps blood throughout the body cells, its failure will cause death. The rampant increase in the number of heart patients can be attributed to the changing lifestyles and food habits. An average human heart weighs between 7 and 15 ounces (200 to 425 grams) and it is almost as large as the human fist. By the end of an average person’s life, his heart would beat (expanded and contracted) more than 3.5 million times. Each day, an average heart beats nearly 100,000 times by pumping around 2,000 gallons (7,571 liters) of blood. The human heart is located between lungs and middle of the chest. The pericardium is the double-layered membrane that surrounds the heart as a sac. In between the two membranes of the pericardium, there is a coating fluid that protects the heart from external shocks and overfilling of blood. The inner layer of the pericardium, which is a smooth lubricated sliding surface, enables the heart organ to easily move in response to its own contractions and expansions. Three layers constitute the outer wall of the human heart. The outermost layer is called epicardium as it also acts as the inner wall of the pericardium. ...
In the circulatory system, heart acts as a double pump. Both inferior and superior vena cavae collect deoxygenated blood respectively form inferior and superior part of the body and passes it to the right atrium. The right atrium pumps the impure blood to the right ventricle and the tricuspid valve regulates the flow of blood between these two chambers. From the right ventricle, the deoxygenated blood is carried to lungs through pulmonary arteries. Chiras (2010, p.135) describes that purification of blood takes place at the lungs where the impure blood drops off carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen; this process is called gas exchange. The passive process of diffusion assists this gas exchange action. The pulmonary valve blocks the backward blood flow from pulmonary arteries to right ventricle. The pulmonary veins carry the oxygenated blood from the lungs to left atrium. From the left atrium, the oxygenated blood is pumped to left ventricles; the mitral valve allows the oxygen rich blood to pass from the left atrium to left ventricle. The left ventricle, the strongest chamber of the heart, pumps the oxygenated blood to the rest of the body through aorta. The vigorous contractions of the left ventricle constitute the blood pressure. The aortic valve, which is situated at the opening of aorta, regulates the pumping of blood form the left ventricle to aorta. There are coronary arteries across the surface of the heart and it supply oxygenated blood to heart muscle. A network of nerve tissues also runs through the heart and it conducts the complex signals which regulate the processes of contraction and relaxation. The flow of blood
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d from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs, where it is loaded with oxygen (Hall, 2011).The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle. The left ventricle (the strongest chamber) pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the
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