Performance Anxiety (PA) is a collection of cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms felt surrounding a performance. At most times, this disables the affected person to perform to the best of his abilities. …
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However, differences in the definition of the disorder make studies more difficult. This may explain why studies on PA are incomparable with one another (Kenny, 2005).
Barlow (2000) gives a simple explanation on the development of PA. Genetics and previous life experiences provide the foundation for PA as it produces a generalized depressed mood. Specific environmental stimuli then initiate a heightened sense of anxiety. Among performers such as musicians, the stimulus is usually social evaluations. This then trigger development self-evaluation that disrupts concentration and performance. In effect, a person with PA acquire cognitive, behavioural and physiological responses to anxiety.
BASICS OF HYPNOTHERAPY
Hypnotherapy is a guided process into a state of relaxation. It does not remove the uncontrollable symptoms, such as anxiety or addiction, but only provides a means to manage them (Nongard and Thomas, 2009).The use of hypnotherapy in managing stress during performances has been supported by clinical and experimental data. Admittedly, however, the efficacy of applying hypnotherapy in improving performance is still inconclusive (Kenny, 2005; Yu, 2006).
According to Wagstaff (2000), there is no scientific evidence that says hypnosis can trigger psychotic disorders among patients. In contrast, Gruzelier (2000) reported that among the adverse effects of hypnosis include transient headache, chronic psychopathology, seizure, stupor, and schizophrenia. In such disagreements on the safety of hypnosis, the risks mentioned above should be disclosed to the patient. Hypnotherapy are said to be effective in solving uncontrollable urges, emotions and feelings, such as alcoholism, anger management, asthma, depression, drug addiction, eating disorders, eczema, insomnia, migraine, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain control, past life regression, psoriasis, sexual abuse, sexual problems, stammering, and smoking. Despite the seemingly wide range of conditions in which hypnotherapy can be used, those with epilepsy, schizophrenia or clinical depression need to get their psychiatrist’s consent before taking sessions (http://www.thehypnotherapyassociation.co.uk/whatcantreat.php). ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEMS As is the case in the study of Yu (2006), it should be asked what she thinks causes the anxiety during performances. The patient was then made to answer two questionnaires, Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale (SUDS) and Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT), in order to objectively quantify the amount of anxiety. If, through AAT, it was found that the anxiety was more facilitating than debilitating, then it is possible that anxiety did not interfere with her presentation (fear that she did not enunciate properly, that her thoughts were not clear, etc.), but were instead directed toward the results of her speech (Did her clients like it? Will they invest?). In addition, a traumatic event leading to the feeling of anxiety must be elicited, since hypnotherapy alone had been found to be ineffective against Post-traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) (Cukor et al., 2010). In such cases, a multifaceted therapy is needed. Finally, the patient was also made to identify the emotional, behavioural, physical and mental symptoms of stress through a checklist prepared by Palmer and Dryden (1995) and Burns (1980). SESSION PROPER After identifying the problems of the patient, the intervention was then planned. There are many choices of therapy mode, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, systematic desensitization, behavioural rehearsal, cognitive and behavioural-cognitive. Studies on the effect of hypnotherapy on music PA had been inconclusive. The use of systematic desensitization on music PA did not prove to be effective anxiety, heart
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This anxiety is less intense as compared to other types of anxiety disorders but is long lasting and makes relaxation almost impossible for the patient. The patient of General Anxiety disorder generally worries about the things that a normal person would worry about like money, health issues, family issues, work problems, etc.
ed number of ancillary symptoms, such as apprehensive expectation and motor tension, which had to be present for at least 1 month” (Heiden et al., 2010, p. 58). Generally, people have reasons to feel worried. The reason for anxiety can be anything from unemployment to obesity and experience of racism.
The author has outlined some researches and the need for these researches in the lives of our musicians. The primary aim of researchers is to help musicians cope with anxiety and discover more theories on musical performance anxiety. Researchers feel the need for collaboration between them and musicians themselves.
Though both men and women are at risk of anxiety, it is higher in women than in men. In a conventional perspective, there has always been a collectively supposed conception that women are more emotional as compared to men. For this reason, an
The test was structured in three main parts, out of which the first one was purely demographic, having the strict purpose of establishing the gender and the educational level but also the educational background of each of the interviewed students.
About 15% of the population in the USA suffers from the panic attacks caused by the anxiety. (Barlow, 2002, pp. 1-2; Bourne, 2005, p. 1)
The purpose of the paper is to explore this concept of ‘anxiety’ from various angles with
Many scholars have tried to explain what math anxiety is. According to Ashcraft and Moore (2009), mathematics anxiety is a negative attitude acquired when someone reacts to math situations such as math calculations or any number involving matters. Another
As the report stresses social anxiety disorder can be classified as a type of phobia which has a disruptive and a disabling effect on the lives of those affected. In the past, Psychologists believed that social anxiety disorder is only triggered by past traumatic events. This argument is clearly an over-simplification of the causes of this disorder.
Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder are likely to experience depression, and can abuse alcohol or other drugs in an attempt to gain relief from anxiety. The individual’s tasks such as school, work or performance, can be significantly affected by anxiety disorders (Evans et al.
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