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Ebola Virus: Possible Origin, Transmission, and Future Vaccine - Research Paper Example

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Ebola Virus Overview Ebola virus is one of the viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome. There are atleast 30 viruses which are known to cause this condition. They are all diverse, but are all RNA viruses having a lipid envelope. All of them cause zoonoses, cause damage to the microvasculature and increase permeability of the vasculature…
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Ebola Virus: Possible Origin, Transmission, and Future Vaccine
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Download file to see previous pages Some of the outbreaks are the 2002-2003 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the 1989 outbreak in Philippines (King and Cunha, Medscape). It has also caused several outbreaks in Sudan, England, Uganda, Gabon, South Africa, Liberia, Virginia, Texas, Pennysylvania, Italy and Alice. Another virus of the same family, the Marburg virus has caused outbreaks in Germany. There are 5 different subtypes or species of Ebola virus and they are Zaire ebolavirus (ZEV), Sudanebolavirus (SEV), Restonebolavirus (REV), Ivory Coast ebolavirus (CIEV), and Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEV) (Gonzalez, 363). Structure All Filoviruses have a characteristic form that is filamentous with a 80nm uniform diameter. The length however is variable. The filaments are basically staight, but folded. The genome of Ebola virus is RNA, negative stranded and non-segmented. It has 7 regulatory and structural genes. The genome codes for 4 structural proteins and 3 membrane proteins (Gonzalez, 363). Pathogenesis After infection with Ebola virus, rapid multiplication of the virus occurs in the early phase. In some individuals, the immunological response is poor and leads to mortality. One of the surface protein, the sGP binds to the neutrophils and causes inhibition of early neutrophil activation. The sGP also leads to profound lymphopenia which is very common in Ebola infection. Thus, effective early host immune response is prevented (Takada, 258). Epidemiology Ebola infection is not an endemic disease in the United States. However, several animal care workers has acquired the Restron stain of the virus within the country. This strain does not have pathogenic effects among human beings. sub-Saharan Africa is endemic to the virus. The most lethal subtype is the Zaire subtype with mortality rate of as high as 89 percent. Sudan subtype has mortality rates of 41-65 percent. There is no sex or racial predilection with the disease (King and Cunha, Medscape). Natural reservoir The actual natural reservoir of Ebola is unknown. Some experts are of the opinion that bats are natural reservoir. The natural reservoirs seem to reside in the tropical forests of Africa which are rainy. Western pacific forests are also considered as natural reservoir sources. Non-human primates are the most common source of infection to human beings. They however are not considered to be natural reservoir. They get infected from the natural reservoirs. Primates which transmit the infection to human beings are monkeys, chimpanzees, duikers and gorillas. Infact, for each epidemic, a particular primate has been identified, like for example, duikers for the Republic of Congo (WHO, 2008). Clinical presentation There are 2 types of exposure to the virus and they are primary and secondary. Primary exposure occurs when an individual has traveled to an area endemic to Ebola infection. Bats are considered to be natural reservoirs and travel to African tropical forests is also considered as primary exposure. Secondary exposure occurs when there is primate to human exposure or human-to-human exposure. During outbreaks health care workers and individuals who cared for the infected patients are at risk of secondary exposure. Even animal care workers fall under this category (King and Cunha, Medscape). Clinical presentation Clinical features depend on the stage of the disease. In the early phases of the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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Ebola virus
.... It is a viral type of infection and causes a disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). There are four, possibly five, identified strains of the virus and each one affects a sufferer differently (Williams, 1999). The virus originated in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan, and is named after the Ebola River Valley in the Congo (Williams, 1999). In 1976, the first recognized outbreak occured at a missionary hospital run by Flemish nuns. There were two strains of the virus that were documented at that time: Ebola-Sudan and Ebola-Zaire (EBOZ). These two strains had extremely high...
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The Ebola Virus Research Paper
...? The Ebola Virus THE EBOLA VIRUS The Ebola virus is ified in the filoviridae family of filovirus, and it is made up of five distinct species namely: Zaire, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Cote d’Ivoire and Reston. Zaire, Bundibugyo and Sudan species are fatal and often associated with the larger Ebola Haemorrhagic fever (EHF) while Cote d’Ivoire and Reston are not fatal. Serious illness or death is yet to be reported on the Reston species; yet, it infects humans. The premise of this paper is to study the Ebola virus and discuss all aspects of the disease: when it was discovered, causes, symptoms,...
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...developing a steady outfit that aims at addressing the virus. In that effect, the authors propose the possible avenues upon which the detection and subsequent control of an outbreak may be considered. Their work does not place into consideration the possible effects that may be related to animals vectors. The focus is oriented on the human patients that traffic into New York from the various infected areas. Such allows for the description of their proposals as being narrowed on the control of human to human transmissions. Additionally, the prospective process of EVD detection has been mentioned intensely in their work. It is further argued that the adoption of a...
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...Teacher What is Ebola? Ebola or scientifically known as the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a disease that now strikes in West Africa (including Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria) and now present in some parts of America and Europe and threatens to spread around the world. Ebola is a disease among human beings and primates that could be fatal if left untreated. Ebola virus was first found in two simultaneous outbreaks way back in 1976 in Nzara, Sudan and Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The name Ebola originated from a river near...
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Ebola Nigeria and Senegal. Consequently, some of the United States of America medical doctors who were on life-saving missions in West Africa contracted this virus. This research paper elucidates on the origin, global distribution and health impacts of Ebola virus. Discovery of Ebola Virus The discovery of Ebola virus traces its origin from central Africa along river Zaire in Congo-Zaire. Baron Peter Piot was the lead researcher behind the discovery of Ebola cure. This Belgium microbiologist helped in the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976....
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... of controlling the Ebola outbreaks. It is worth understanding that, no licensed Ebola vaccines have been recently been registered, but potential clinical candidates are undergoing examination and evaluation (Filippone, 2013). Analysis presented in this paper is helpful in understanding the background, the causative agent of classification, structure, replication, as well as transmission. The paper uncovers the epidemiological statistics of Ebola virus diseases in relation to the clinical manifestation, preference and the laboratory strategies used in the disease identification according to Roddy et al. (2012). Similarly, the paper demonstrate realistically the preventive and treatment measures are exploiting the past, current... and the...
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...Ebola virus and similar viruses use a combination of virally en d enzymes and host en d enzymes to replicate alongside host cell structures. Their self-assemblage in the host cell develops viral macromolecular structures. Virus attacks by sticking to the host receptors via glycoprotein surface peplomer. Its endocytosis into macropinosomes occurs there. Fusion of viral membrane with vesicle membrane facilitates its penetration into the cell, and nucleocapsid generates into cytoplasm. Encapsidated negative-sense genomic ssRNA helps synthesize polyadenylated monocistronic mRNAs (3’ to 5’). The mRNA’s transaltion into viral proteins takes place with the ribosomes, tRNA molecules of the host...
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...such as breast milk, semen, vomit, saliva, sweat and urine as well as sharing of objects such as needles and syringes can also lead to transmission of Ebola virus. Whereas healthcare providers and family members who take care of infected patients are at higher risk of contracting the virus, it is imperative to note that no evidence has pointed towards insects such as mosquitoes acting as transmission agents of Ebola virus (CDC, n.d). Similarly, Ebola is neither waterborne nor airborne; however, it can spread through food when hunting for bush meat, as is the case in some regions across Africa....
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Ebola Virus
...the vaccines’ performance shows possibilities of eradicating the disease, they will have to enter mass production before the year 2015. Past Studies Past studies indicate that the Ebola virus outbreak affected the Congo and Nile Basins by simultaneously stirring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Sudan. The fatality rates stood at 53 percent for DRC and Sudan recording higher rates of up to 88 percent. The early transmission of the Ebola virus remained unknown for the period 1980 – 1993, however, the sprout of new Ebola virus species became frequent in the West African...
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Transmission of ebola virus
.... J., Kanneh, L., ... & Scheiffelin, J. S. (2014). Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak. Science, 345(6202), 1369-1372. Jamieson, D. J., Uyeki, T. M., Callaghan, W. M., Meaney-Delman, D., & Rasmussen, S. A. (2014). What obstetrician–gynecologists should know about Ebola: a perspective from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124(5), 1005-1010. Team, W. E. R. (2014). Ebola virus disease in West Africa—the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections. N Engl J Med, 371(16), 1481-95.... TRANSMISSION OF EBOLA VIRUS Unit: The paper is based on the analysis of an article on...
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