Sustainable development for Iraqi oil and gas in the light of international law with particular reference to Kurdistan region Outline of the study Chapter two “Background of the sustainable development concept” of this study represents a historical background overview of the concept of sustainable development, which for the purpose of this study is considered from the perspective of development in the oil and gas industry…
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Chapter two describes the process of the evolution of the concept of sustainable development from the 1972 Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, where the first United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) has been created, to the today’s more comprehensive and profound understanding of sustainable development as a “specific call to prioritize improvements in the well-being of the very worst-off now and in the future” (Paul 2008: p.579). Nowadays strong sustainability development of non-renewable resources, which oil and gas resources are relating to, implies that such resources should be recognised as a specific form of natural capital, and should not be exhausted for short-term benefits only (Ayres et al. 1998: p.4). In addition, chapter two gives an overview of the philosophical and theoretical dimensions of the sustainable development. This overview, made on the basis of the existing academic and professional literature, provides useful information regarding the research in hand and helps to define the ways and concepts of reaching sustainable development in the oil and gas industry through different perspectives. ...
l extent, they help to realise a process of shift from a policy of the development of environment without regard to possible negative consequences, to a political culture, which takes into consideration all current and future needs and interests of governments, communities and individuals. Chapter three views these principles in relation to the sustainable development of petroleum resources, in particular. It is emphasised that sustainable use of petroleum resources requires taking into account the criticality of these resources, the availability of technologies that intend to minimise depletion and the likelihood of other resources or technologies that can substitute for petroleum resources (WCED 1987: The Concept of Sustainable Development, Para.12). In other words, the principles of sustainable development are considered in this chapter so that they should be used to prevent “resource-use activities and projects by actors from within and outside the State” (Bottriell & French 2005: p.5). Chapter four “Strategic issues of the sustainable development of Iraqi oil and gas” explores the constitutional and legal strategies for the sustainable development of Iraqi oil and gas industry. The general assumption underlying the investigation within this chapter is that the national strategies should address the concept of sustainable development, complying with the international environmental law, on the one hand, and dealing with specific issues related to national and regional environmental legislations, on the other hand (Boer et al. 1998: p.1-3; Bosselmann 2008: p.145-148). Besides, at the national level, it is considered that the concept of sustainable development should be addressed both from the perspective of regulations related to particular environmental
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This study is based on the main proposition that in order to meet the increased world demand of fossil fuels, as well as national need in accelerating of national economy’s growth rate, Iraq should develop an official law and policy in regard to development and use of oil and gas resources, which should be supported by adequate enforcement mechanisms. Such law and policy should be agreed, recognised and accepted throughout the country, and what is also important, law and policy should be in entire conformity with international environmental laws.
The Kyoto Protocol as a special case of sustainable development policy 24 2.5 The New Millennium Summit, the 2002 Johannesburg Summit and the 2002 ILA New Delhi Declaration 28 2.6 The current progress on sustainable development 35 3. Conceptual basis of sustainable development 39 3.1 Conceptual dimensions of sustainable development 39 3.2 The approaches of environmental philosophy to sustainable development 42 4.
22 - 2007, as well as drafts of Iraqi federal oil and gas law (2007), in addition to Iraqi environmental protections, specifically Iraqi environmental protections and improvement law no. 27 of 2009. Yet also with mention of Iraqi environmental protection and Improvement law No.
(27) of 2009 10 4.4 Kurdistan Environmental Law No. (20) of 2008 8 International Organizations and Regulatory Influences on Iraq 13 4.5 United Nations 13 4.6 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 17 Conclusion of Analysis 19 Introduction The nation of Iraq is currently regulated overall by its federal Constitution of 2005, instituted two years after Saddam Hussein was removed from his dictatorship.
Chapter Two: Sustainability in Context of Oil and Gas Development This chapter will explore how sustainability is defined and implemented in the oil and gas sector by looking at examples from around the world1. The primary objective of this chapter is to see how other nations are introducing sustainability into their oil and gas sector equations2.
raq 37 Conclusion 44 Bibliography 49 Introduction Iraq has one of the world’s largest proven oil and gas reserves. Current estimates of proven oil reserves suggest a potential of 115 billion barrels of crude oil which makes Iraq the world’s third largest oil rich country.
After the industrial revolution, a world which was primarily agricultural in nature started to industrialize at a fast pace. The energy required for such fast paced industrialization readily required the increased supply of energy. Wood was the prominent source of fuel which provided power to the factories in the initial stage of industrialization.
However, recent years have seen mounting violence and threats of separatism based on the oil and gas resources of the nation. More prominently, the Kurdish camp to Iraq’s north is eyeing separatism within a realm of possibility by colluding with regional elements to frame a free Kurdistan.
Translating growth in oil receipts into prosperity for the people of Iraq is a promise as well as a challenge. Legal, regulatory, logistical, political, institutional reform, security, and workforce are formidable aspects that challenge Iraq. A major challenge facing Iraq is the need to increase investment funds to promote sustainable development in the developing nation.
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