Corporate finance - Assignment Example

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Corporate finance Table of Contents Capital structure and firm value 3 Miller & Modigliani capital structure irrelevance proposition 3 MM Proposition without taxes 4 MM Proposition with taxes 7 Practical relevance of MM proposition 9 Propositions on dividend policy 9 Implications of MM dividend irrelevance proposition 10 Limitations of the net present value method of investment evaluation 13 Real Options and capital budgeting 14 Challenges associated with real options in capital budgeting- 15 Reference 17 Part 1- Capital structure and firm value The firm value is defined as the sum of value of its debt and the value of its equity…
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Download file to see previous pages Miller & Modigliani capital structure irrelevance proposition In the year 1958 Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller highlighted that in “perfect capital markets” the capital structure does not have any influence on the value of the firm rendering it irrelevant. The perfect capital markets are not characterised by any market frictions like trading costs, taxes and the information is easily transmitted between the investors and the managers. M&M made a clear distinction between the financial risk and business risk faced by a firm. While the financial risk refers to the choice of risk distribution between the bondholders and shareholders, the business risk refers to the uncertainty of cash flows of the business. It has been pointed out by Miller and Modigliani that changes in leverage does not cast any significant influence on the cash flows generated by the business. Therefore changes in leverage cannot alter the value of the firm. ...
The firms as well as individuals can borrow or lend at the risk-free interest rate. The firms employ risky equity and risk-free debt. There exist only corporate taxes i.e. absence of personal income taxes or wealth taxes. They assumed perpetuity of cash flows i.e. assuming the growth rate to be zero (Lee, et al., 2009, p.202). As per M&M model the value of levered firm (VL) is equal to the value of unlevered firm (VU). Suppose there are two companies- Company 1 and Company2. It is assumed that the two companies have identical cash flows and belong to same risk profile. The difference between the two companies is with respect to financing. M&M state that the market value of the two companies is same. Suppose the pay-off of Company 1 in good state is 160 and in bad state is 50. This company is financed only by the equity mode of financing. Similarly the payoff of Company 2 is 160 in good state and 50 in bad state. It is financed by the combination of debt and equity. Suppose the total debt of Company 2 is $60 and its market value is $50; the market value of its equity is $50. Then the value of the Company 2 is- VL = Value of its equity + Value of debt = 50+50 =100 Now if the value of Company 1 is different from Company 2 say 103. Then an arbitrage strategy can be created- An investor can sell Company 1 at 103. He can buy the equity of Company 2 at $50 and debt at $50. The net cash flow is- = 103-100 =3 This process will continue until the Value of Company 1 is equal to Company 2 (Banal-Estanol , 2010). The increase in leverage component raises the risk and return of the shareholders. This can be stated as- RE = RO + (B/S)(RO – RD) RE is the return on levered equity RO is return on unlevered equity B is the debt value S is the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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