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Advanced Clinical Nutrition - Assignment Example

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Running Head: ADVANCED CLINICAL NUTRITION FINAL EXAMINATION: ADVANCED CLINICAL NUTRITION (Name) (Course) (Professor) (University) (Date) 1. Why are T2D and CVD co-morbidities of obesity? (30 points total). To answer this question, be sure to discuss the parts below in detail (including tissues involved, key factors that play a role (where they come from, mechanisms by which they contribute, etc)…
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Advanced Clinical Nutrition
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"Advanced Clinical Nutrition"

how does obesity increase risk for T2D? Please be specific) (10 points). Obesity occurs when there is an abnormality in the energy balance equation. However, it is said that the pathogenesis of obesity is far more complex than the simple model of an imbalance between energy intake and energy output. It is far more than the mere result of eating too much and/or moving less. Two major factors that affect the development of obesity are genetics and environmental factors. (Uwaifo, 2011) According to the National Center for Chronic Diseases (2011) “the epidemics of obesity and the low level of physical activity in young people, as well as exposure to diabetes in utero, may be major contributors to the increase in type 2 diabetes during childhood and adolescence.” Low levels of physical activity and improper diet (particular increased caloric intakes) encourages weight gain. Weight gain is correlated with an increase in insulin concentration, requiring more insulin secretion from the pancreas. (Bray, 1992) This increased effort on the part of the pancreas may lead to pancreatic failure and diabetes mellitus in people who are prone to pancreatic islet insuffiency. (Bray, 1992) Absence or insufficiency of insulin may be important in the sodium retention and hypertension associated with obesity. In simpler terms, when there is too much fat in the body (obesity), insulin resistance may occur because fat interferes with the body’s utilization of insulin. (Eckman and Zieve, 2010) b) Discuss the pathophysiology of obesity related to CVD (i.e. how does obesity increase risk for CVD? Be specific) (10 points). CVDs, which are the number one cause of death globally, are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and include: coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, and deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. (WHO, 2011) Obesity is directly related to these disorders, as well as, increased mortality, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and increased risk of gall bladder disease.(Bray, 1992) The consequences of excess weight can be presented in two ways: series of consequences related with an increase in caloric intake and/or decreased physical activity and the second is the consequences of excess weight gain on a variety of organ systems. The first consequence explains that when there is an increase in body weight, the size of fat cells also increases. And when the maximum size is reached, additional fat cells must be recruited to accommodate for triacylglycerol. And when the maximum size is reached, additional fat cells must be recruited to accommodate for triacylglycerol. Excess BMI (35 kg/m2) or 75% above the normal weight means an individual have the hypercellular form of obesity; consequently encouraging the increase in lipoprotein lipase. The accumulation of tryacylglycerol in subcutaneous or visceral depots is influenced by a number of factors such as corticosteroids and sympathetic activity. Increased lower body or fat in the butt is promoted by low concentrations of cortisol and high concentrations of estradiol relative to testosterone. The increase of fat stores is correlated with a linear increase in the production of cholesterol. Consequently, the increase cholesterol production is associated with increased cholesterol secretion in bile, Read More
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