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How stress is related to infertility (the psychological and physical/biological issues/effects of stress on women) - Research Paper Example

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How stress is related to infertility (the psychological and physical/biological issues/effects of stress on women) Introduction It has been observed by many physicians and research scholars that childlessness is a major factor for distress, in most couples, that cannot conceive for some reason…
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Download file to see previous pages As for example, a survey on the reproductive health of the female inmates within the various concentration camps was seen to have been adversely affected (Negro-Vilar, 1993, 59). In this article I will study these various environmental stress causing factors to find out as to how stress creates infertility amongst women, by studying various books and medical journals. Discussion What is stress? Infertility is ranked by various researchers as being one of the highest levels of stress generators in an individual’s life, and is often compared to the levels of stress caused by various terminal diseases, like cancer (Domar, 1996). While studying the links between stress and infertility, it has been observed that infertility in almost all cases creates stress, while on the other hand stress does not always result in infertility amongst women. This is owing to the fact that often severity of the stress may form to be an important factor in determining its effects on human reproductive system. Stress is related to various environmental factors; and one can define the term environment in the manner that Claude Bernard frames it, “the totality of physical, chemical, biological, behavioral and socioeconomic factors or conditions that constitute the external milieu surrounding the human organism” (cited in Negro-Vilar, 1993, 59). The term "stress" generally alludes to a variety of responses created by some detrimental or potentially detrimental stimuli. A large number of these stimuli come directly from the environment; while some may arise from the responses of a particular individual to certain environmental factors; and some of the responses may also be purely psychogenic in nature. Relation between the detrimental environment stimuli and the human body (related to the reproductive system): Fig 1: “Environmental agents interact with and/or affect reproductive tissues and functions through a variety of receptors linked to different organ systems” (Source, Negro-Vilar, 1993, 60). Summarily, the sensory system of a human body interprets the various stimuli or signals originating from the environment, such as smell, touch, light, sounds, etc. and changes them into ‘chemical signals.’ These resultant chemical signals tend to influence the neuro-endocrine system, which controls the human reproductive system, and associated sexual bearing (Martin and Reichlin, 1987). The nervous and neuro-endocrine systems in a human body also control the psychological and behavioural impact on reproduction (ibid). Thus, we find that it is the neuro-endocrine system that is in complete control of the human reproductive functioning, while the hormones form a kind of chemical link between the human genetic structure and the environment (stress originating factor) (fig 1). The human immune system also responds to various ‘antigenes’ within the environment, which can adversely affect the human reproductive system. The human skin, respiratory canal, and the gastrointestinal tracts form the routes through which various detrimental environmental factors and other biologically active harmful elements may enter a human body (Fig 1). Their ultimate destination are the receptor cells and the human enzymes, and also to some extent the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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