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WAVE AND TIDAL POWER - Assignment Example

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Wave energy facilitates utilization of kinetic energy related with ocean waves. Marine and tidal current system apprehends the potential energy related with ocean tides and currents. Ocean thermal…
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WAVE AND TIDAL POWER
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due: Wave and Tidal Power Question one The three stakeholders that would play a relevant part in the deployment of the tidal/wave technology are:
- Wave energy,
- Specific design and manufacture of efficient equipment, and,
- Planning and permitting.
Distinct ocean energy technologies are being developed beside major concepts. Wave energy facilitates utilization of kinetic energy related with ocean waves. Marine and tidal current system apprehends the potential energy related with ocean tides and currents. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), remove power by harnessing temperature differences between deep water and surface water. The salinity gradient (osmotic energy) systems utilize the entropy of mixing salt water and fresh water for instance, at river mouths (Avato, Patrick, and Jonathan 55). Utilizing wind energy through on-shore and off-shore wind farms has been one of the rapid growing kinds of renewable energy in the past decade (Avato at al. 56).
In order to harness the wave and tidal energy, there is a need for a specific design and manufacture of efficient equipment to exploit natural energy flows. One challenge in the field is the up-front investment which is huge although the fuel may be free and the waste products low. The efficiency of designs put in place is determined by the distance they are placed from shore which could either be shoreline, offshore or near-shore.
Planning and permitting are very essential in deploying tidal/wave energy technology because there are issues like environmental, health and safety issues and other sea user disputes. In terms of products, services chains and infrastructure need to be in place to enhance competition and avoid shortages (Elghali, Benbouzid and Charpentier 1407-1412).
Question two
The KAYA principle is concerned with the emissions of any greenhouse gas which is illustrated in the identity of carbon dioxide emissions:
CO2 = Co2/E x E/Q x Q/L x L
This implies that the percentage rate of change in carbon dioxide emissions is equal to the rate of change in carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy plus the rate of change in energy essentials per unit output plus the rate of change in output per capital plus the rate of change in the population. For most developing countries, emissions are higher unless energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions per unit energy change to offset growth in per capita output and population. The developing countries with fast growing populations, pressure for economic growth will make it inconvenient to direct capital on investments with maximum greenhouse gas emissions compared to those with lower greenhouse gas emissions (Bruce 27). Population is not considered in policy debates on climate changes, and studies in the past ten years have added significant to comprehending the complexity and mechanisms of population and climate interactions. Moreover, the development total population size, study indicate that changes in population make-up produce substantial effects on the climate system. Furthermore, research on the impact, adaptation (IAV) and vulnerability community also disclose that community dynamics are critical in the future of building climate change resilience and adaptation strategies (Jiang, Leiwen, & Hardee 287-312).
Question 3
The three technical barriers to wave/tidal are:
- Cost of the project
- Effects on environment, and,
- The foundation of operations
The marine technologies in pilot projects are required to be relatively large-scale for them to withstand offshore conditions. These projects are expensive and have high perceived risks. These deliberations have prevented early development of marine technologies.
The prospects for tidal barrages are good in specific locations, but their site-specific environmental effects require careful examination. The technology minimizes the range of tides inside the barrage. This can influence the silt and mud flats in rivers, which can interfere with the wildlife living around and in the estuary. In addition, it can also influence the quality of water conserved in the barrage (Princiotta 186).
A large number of tidal and wave designs can be viewed as a positive feature for the industry which motivates competition and hence the appearance of competitive designs. However, well-founded operation is important in any design because recurrent downtime or incomplete reduction in power production capacity as a result of component failure is probable to be worsened as a result of limited accessibility in an offshore habitat. On the other hand, accessibility can be harshly obstructed by poor climate, for instance, restricted wave, wind, tidal windows for helicopter and vessel access. Moreover, accessibility is limited by obstacles and costs in mobilizing suitable vessels at a short notice in the event of unplanned maintenance operations (Elghali, Benbouzid and Charpentier 1407-1412). The technical barriers mentioned are migratory. This is because these projects are familiar with other types of development in the marine habitat that lead to environmental impacts.
Works cited
Avato, Patrick, and Jonathan Coony. Accelerating Clean Energy Technology Research,
Development, and Deployment: Lessons from Non-Energy Sectors. Washington, D.C: World Bank, 2008. Print.
Ben Elghali, S. E., M. E. H. Benbouzid, and Jean Frédéric Charpentier. "Marine tidal
current electric power generation technology: State of the art and current status." Electric Machines & Drives Conference, 2007. IEMDC07. IEEE International. Vol. 2. IEEE, 2007.
Bruce, James P. Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Contribution of
Working Group Iii to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996. Print.
Jiang, Leiwen, and Karen Hardee. "How do recent population trends matter to climate
change?." Population Research and Policy Review 30.2 (2011): 287-312.
Princiotta, Frank T. Global Climate Change, the Technology Challenge. Dordrecht [etc.:
Springer, 2011. Print. Read More
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