Science lab - Assignment Example

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The causal factor for the state of current ground water is traced back to 1800. At that time, the environment was very pure and human interference had not taken place. All the contributors to the…
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Human Impacts on the Sustainability of Groundwater al Affiliation Human Impacts on the Sustainability of Groundwater Purpose Assessing the trend of human development, both settlement and industrialization, and their impacts on groundwater and environment in general since 1800 to date.
The volume of ground water is no doubt reducing at a rate that is worrying. The causal factor for the state of current ground water is traced back to 1800. At that time, the environment was very pure and human interference had not taken place. All the contributors to the hydrological cycle, that is, vegetation and water bodies, had not been quashed. The reason for the state of the environment in 1800 was low population that was slightly above billion, which did not require massive pieces of land to be cultivated to feed it since the lifestyle then was mainly hunting and gathering. Between 1900 and 2000 the world’s population increased by six billion and industrialization was at its peak (Wright & Boorse, 2010). Vast piece of land has been cleared to accommodate settlement and agriculture. All this contributed to 90% decline in ground water.
The trend of environmental degradation came to limelight in 1962 when Rachael Carson wrote a book called silent spring. Later, in 1972 report named limit to growth and another known as our common future in 1987 by Brundtland commission were published (Wright & Boorse, 2010). It was due to these three major publications that influenced the adoption of the ideology knows as sustainable development.
Hypothesis/Predicted Outcome
The level of ground water and may go low beyond reach.
The fresh groundwater will be replaced by saline ocean water.
For clear evidence of the previous state of the environment, it was mandatory I review map and analyze them. The satellite vegetation maps showing the vegetation cover from 1800 to date and human settlements map over the same duration of time was a fundamental source of data for this study. Further, geological data on the trend of ground water was also influential in this study. Therefore, the major method of date collection was map reading and analysis.
Time Period
Impact to Forest
Groundwater Levels
Saltwater Intrusion
Industrial development
Large Forest
Lot of GroundWater
No Salt Water Intrusion
Small Farms
No cities
Limited Housing
Decreased by 50%
Decreased by 50%
Ocean moved into Groundwater
Farms are Large, but there are Fewer
Exceptional Growth of Cities and Industries
Substantial Increase in Housing
Decreased by 90%
Decreased by 90%
Great Movement of Ocean into Groundwater
Same number of Farms, but size Decrease by 20%
Industrial Development Decrease by 10-16%
Housing Development Decrease by 10-16%
In 1900 through to 2000, the world population has increased by six billion. Because of the high population increase, there was the need to find means to fend for the need of this large number, which led to clearing of forest by 90% to create space for settlement and cultivation. It was also during this time that the European countries and America engaged in high industrial activities, which tremendously impacted on the environment. Forest cover, which plays a role in enhancing hydrological cycle had reduced, meaning that rain had also reduced (Wright & Boorse, 2010). In this line, the amount of water that percolated through the soil profile to recharge the ground water was reduced by half. Since the developments of environmental policies, there have been attempts to reverse the damage that happened in 1900. In this pursuit, forest cover is being increased through afforestation, reforestation, and agroforestry (Wright & Boorse, 2010). However, if the trend of human development persists, then the groundwater will absolutely reduce further. Likewise, the intrusion of ocean water into ground water will be inevitable. This way, the groundwater will become more salty.
Wright, R. T.,& Boorse, D. F. (2010). Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. (11th ed.) White Plain, NY: Addison Wesley. Read More
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