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The Trial - Research Paper Example

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Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) Professor Date These are primates found Indonesia, Malaysia and the island of Borneo. Bornean orangutans live in solidarity but with occasional aggregations. They are arboreal but often descend to the ground. Females take 10-15 years to reach the age of their first reproduction age although there are differences between the sub-species…
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Download file to see previous pages Population distribution In the 20th century both the number and distribution of Bornean orangutan has reduced tremendously to over 50% because of human activities that include unsustainable illegal logging, clearance of forests to provide land for agricultural purposes, hunting and mining. Large percentage of orangutans are currently found in Kalimantan because of the area has extensive forests still in existence. (Munn,63-65) Impact of humans activities on ecosystem Loss and degradation of orangutan Habitat The loss of habitat is the main threat to the survival of orangutan. For example, in Kalimantan, a large area of the forest has been cleared to create land for mega rice projects that have tremendously destroyed orangutan habitat. The situation is further worsened by the fact that even habitat in protected areas are vanishing at a high rate because of unclear delineation of the boundaries making it difficult to patrol. (Munn,59-62) Collateral damage a) Spread of fire b)hunting and c) human-animal conflict. Hunting In south East Asia orangutans are hunted for meat and surplus hunt sold on pet market especially in most interior areas of Borneo. These because they can not run faster like other animals and therefore they are easily targeted by hunters even form a distance. This has resulted in the decline of the number of orangutan. This has been the main cause of low density of orangutans in the low hill forests especially areas around pawan river in the western Kalimantan) and katingan and basito river (central Kalimantan). The scale of hunting is increased because of forest fires which drive them away out of the forests where they are easily captured either for meat or sale in the pet markets. Furthermore, hunting is aggravated by destruction of forests either for timber or to create land for agricultural purposes. The forest is a source for food for orangutan and their destruction forces orangutan to venture out of the forests into the surrounding agricultural land destroying food crops and also acting as pests. Local people respond intolerantly to these apes by either shooting or poisoning them and taking the young orangutan which are either sold or slaughtered for meat.(Knott, 429-57) Conflict with human Orangutans are also killed when they move into farming land to destroy food crops. This happens when climatic conditions are adverse and the food available in the forest is less and hardly accessible. In addition, when the habitat of orangutan is destroyed either by fire or clearance of the forest where they dwell, they are forced to move to open field to look for food in agricultural farms where they are killed as to they are also regarded as pests The orangutans’ loss can also be attributed to Climate change. A great drought that preceded El Nino in 1998 had a negative impact on the survival of orangutan has it led to the great fire that destroyed a large portion of the forest cover in Sothern Asia. In the process, thousands of orangutan was killed and it’s approximated that, over30% of orangutan in Borneo were destroyed by great forest fires in the last decade. Economic and political stability also played great role in the reduction of orangutan in south East Asia. Financial crisis and violent demonstration that led to the resignation of Suharto culminated into mass anarchy and political instability that increased both logging and poaching. In addition, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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