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Principal components and Changes to peasant and tribal life - Assignment Example

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This essay describes the situation in the Arab peasantry during the nineteenth century, the Ottoman government is seen to have the result to the oppression and exploitation of the rural peasants. The local elites included both the rural shaykhs and the urban notables…
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Principal components and Changes to peasant and tribal life
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Principal components and Changes to peasant and tribal life in the Arab countryside during Ottoman rule (College) The situation in the Arab peasantry during the nineteenth century, the Ottoman government is seen to have the result to the oppression and exploitation of the rural peasants by the local elites. The local elites included both the rural shaykhs and the urban notables. During the time when the incentives were yet to be generated as a result of the forces of the global market due to the more activity that was taking place in the European economy and the period before the establishment of the Ottoman Tanzimat reforms which was the basis of the administrative structure that were formed, the existing authority by then of both the urban notables and the rural shaykhs dependent mostly on the peasantry acceptance. The Tanzimat reforms composed of the individual property rights, new land-tenure policies, and more equitable taxation. The peasants were required according to the land-tenure reform to register their private holding with their respective states so that it could boost investments, high tax base and agricultural production for the Ottoman state.
After the establishment of the economic policies and the new reform, the Ottoman decided to turn their interest back to the provinces in the Arab countries. They began using large farmsteads in the form of profitable private holdings. Also, they gave out land in the form of grants to the migrants population and the colonists. Other areas that were used for sheep and goats were turned into farms. The kind of authority that existed before was cut completely without leverage. From the perspective of the peasantry, the expectations of the nature of the behavior of the urban notables and the rural shaykhs had to relate to the authority that they had. Later the forces that exist in the global market and the increase in the administrative centralization cause an adverse impact on the lifestyle of the peasants. Also, also the change in the previous relationship that between the peasantry and the traditional elites cause changes in the understanding of the Muslims on their religious identity with relation to the Islamic practice gradual formalization. The notables’ authority large developed to become the mediators between the peasantry and the formal Islamic institutions. A large number of the proletariat did not have a direct interaction or access to the facilities, and this caused a vague understanding of what constituted the Islamic behavior.
In the middle nineteenth century, an increase in the interest in the authority of both the rural shaykhs and the urban notables became tied to the state of the European economy. It is observed that the leverage that the peasant had while relating with the urban notables and the rural shaykhs. The gap that existed between the social relations among the local elites and the peasantry widened. The European economic penetration as a result of the new economic opportunities leads to the increased use of the use of authority to exploit the peasants and especially those who had fewer ties. In the absentia of the landlords, the rural shaykhs together with the urban-based creditors carried out their duties based on the commercial considerations. The elite’s status, on the other hand, was measured by use of the amount of wealth that was mainly acquired from commerce. The previous existing mediation and old rules of patronage that was between the peasantry and the local elites was no longer adhere to and hence the repetition of the peasantry by the local elites. Read More
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