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the past, animal testing was justified due to lack of technology and absence of proficiency in medicine, as fewer alternatives were present to heal the patients (Anderegg et al, 1). Supporters of animal testing have been using the argument that experimentation on animals have led to remarkable advancements like kidney transplants, mental illness, ulcer and asthma drugs, bypass operations, polio vaccines etc. Even the effects of penicillin were first observed on mice in 1940. Following these tests, the drug was then used on soldiers in 1941. Similarly, blood transfusion was conducted on dogs in 1914. Since then this technique has been used for human beings and has helped save the lives of many (RDS, 3).
In spite of what the supporters of animal testing say, it has been testified by numerous medical historians that key medical discoveries were rather made by observing patients and human autopsy, as opposed to animal testing.
There have been several cases where testing on animals has led to results which ended up misleading the scientists rather than provide evidence. In 1963, it was concluded that smoking and lung cancer in humans was strongly correlated. This conclusion was a result of retrospective studies and research. However when tested on animals, the experiments failed to produce the desired results. Since the human and animal anatomy had vast difference, researchers ignored the human data which they obtained from patients. As a result, health warnings weren’t issued and this resulted in thousands of deaths by lung cancer (Anderegg et al, 2).
Similarly the use of animal models misled researchers, when the polio virus was being studied. As a result of experimenting on monkeys, researchers concluded that the polio virus was transmitted through the respiratory system. Consequently misdirected preventive measures were taken and the development of the polio vaccine was delayed. It was later found out that in human, the polio virus is transmitted by the
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Should Animals Be Used for Research
Thesis: Animals research played an essential part in scientific breakthrough that improved life expectancy and created a healthier society.
However, there are some ethical issues involved in animal research. Therefore, the purpose of this presentation is to tackle the claimed ethical issues then we will weigh the practical benefits as compared to these ethical issues.
The idea of intension is made no more precise than the imprecise and idea perception. It usually appears as if an individual explained the idea productivity by claiming that in single sense profitability implies that frequency, and in other sense it implies propensity.
This source relates to the critic against the use of electronic medical records as it lay claim to the fact that its unfamiliarity has made it to receive little acceptance by medical
practitioners. The book dedicates some of its chapters to chiropractic care, dentistry, home care, medications and nursing homes.
In Descartes' view, the urge to reason with everyone and almost at everything and the verbal communication are the characteristics that set humans separately from all other kinds. Using the belief of parsimony, wherein one always necessarily begins with the unpretentious details of pragmatic events, Descartes reasons that the perceived actions of all nonhuman living beings can be explained without crediting minds and understanding.
The discovery of insulin and the development of polio and rabies vaccines are some medical breakthroughs that can be credited to the use of animals in medical research. Since scientists are still unclear about the way human body functions, animals like cats, mice, frogs, pigs and primates have been frequently used to determine its effect and efficiency in addressing specific medical conditions.
Peter Singer argued that the interest of animals should be considered due to their ability to feel suffering. By 1980, PETA was formed. PETA is an American animal rights nonprofit organization based in Norfolk, Virginia. It is the most popular and the largest organization for the rights of animals.
Early philosophers tried to solve this problem by introducing a concept which involved the methodological solipsism assumption. This is the assumption that no psychological state assumes the existence of any
The Stanford Prison Experiment was an official study conducted in 1971 on the campus of Stan-ford University. The experiment itself was completed by a team researchers, all under the direction of Philip Zimbardo. It was aimed to better understand the psychological effects of becoming either a prisoner or prison guard.
Animal testing includes such simple activities as observing mice run in a maze to other extensive experiments that include injecting the animals or even dissecting them. While the results of animal testing are always profitable to
According to the report many perspectives have come up to take sides on whether animals deserve to suffer so humans can live. Critically looking at this issue, it can be seen the problem cuts across some social fabrics ranging from religion, science to philosophy and independent thinking. Using animals for research is a serious violation.
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