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Drug addiction has negative consequences to both individuals and society. One of the main consequences is the increased burden to the community and individuals (Conrad & Anggard, 1977). Moreover, drug abuse affects the health status of the individual and other forms of their social life. This paper seeks to focus on drug addiction. Drug Addiction Drug addiction is a persisting problem and affects the brains resulting into compulsive drug seeking and use even when there are negative outcomes to the individual and society (NIDA, 2011). Initially, individual take the drug for casual, recreation, leisure, or entertainment. However, continuous use of the drug affects the brain in a way that the affected individual is unable to overcome the temptation of taking more drugs. Treatment is available for this condition. Most of the treatments are behavior oriented coupled with appropriate recommendations. Most of the treatment focuses on changing the social behavior of the individual involved. This means drug addiction can be managed successful reducing further damage to the individual involved. The management of drug addiction is similar to those of other chronic diseases (Conrad & Anggard, 1977. This means such care requires more attention and absolute obedience to the individuals undergoing such form of therapy.
Effects of Drugs to the Brain
The problem of drug addiction starts from the brain. Drugs contain chemicals that affect the brain communication system and configure the nerve cells (NIDA, 2011). This happens in two ways. They mimic the brain natural messengers and overstimulation of brain functioning system (NIDA, 2011). Some drugs have similar components as the chemical messengers found in the body. These chemical messengers are known as the neurotransmitters. Such drugs include cannabis and heroine. These drugs configure the brain receptors and stimulate the nerve cells to send abnormal messages (NIDA, 2011). Other drug causes abnormal production of chemical messengers in the brain. An example of such drug is cocaine. They prevent the normal recycling of the brain chemicals that are supposed to stop connections between neurons (NIDA, 2011). This disfigures dopamine that is responsible for controlling movement, emotion, motivation, and feelings of pleasure (NIDA, 2011). This leads to ecstatic events in response to psychoactive drugs. Consequently, such individuals are accustomed to repeating the beneficial behavior of abusing drugs. Those that abuse such drugs are unable to enjoy the drugs and other events in life. Consequently, this decrease in satisfaction forces leads to more use of drug in order to maintain the function of dopamine to normality (NIDA, 2011). This means high amount of drug is required to maintain normalcy. In addition, other changes occur in the brain due to continued abuse of drugs. Such change affects the glutamate. The neurotransmitter affects the system functionality and the ability to learn (NIDA, 2011). When the normal amount of the neurotransmitter is affected by drug abuse, the brain tries to bring normalcy, and this may reduce the cognitive function (NIDA, 2011). This defect has been shown to affect brain processes such as learning and memory (NIDA, 2011). These challenges make the abusers seek out and continually use drugs even when there are widespread
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This occurs despite the negative health consequences, besides adverse outcomes in the social, economic and functional spheres.Although confronted with all the disadvantages caused by drug use, addicted individuals persist in taking addictive drugs. They take drugs to escape from reality or to avoid unpleasant states such as withdrawal or stress. “According to early models of drug motivation, negative reinforcement is a key motive for drug use” (Baker et al, 2004, p.33).
Drug addiction is a major problem in most developed countries. The problem results from continued use of a particular drug that makes the user to desire more of the substance. Drug addiction is more of a medical problem than a behavioral problem. Addiction to drug is among the most dominant consequence of drug usage that causes problems major problems to drug users.
Julien et al. (2010) and Selye (1978) consider introduction of a foreign material to the body as one cause of deviation from this normalness. Exposing systems of an individual to a foreign material over a long period results to addiction. That is, addicts of a particular substance develop the behavior after being exposed to the substance over some time.
Although it Moreover, drugs directly alter neurons and the synapses that they carry out, and drugs do this either through imitation of the natural chemical messengers of the brain and through the overstimulation of the brain’s “reward circuit” (“Drug Facts,” 2011).
Second, there is the school of thought that describes drug abuse as a type of self-fulfilling prophecy with relation to the way people understand and categorize it. What one can see from this debate, prior to seeking to develop their own point of view with relation to the issue, is that one viewpoint attempts to explain drug use by way of a mental/spiritual deficiency in terms of lack of willpower.
In combination with the wide accessibility of drugs from many sources such as online pharmacies, the household medicine cabinet, and some physicians, it is very important that policiesmust be strengthened and enforced among all persons dispensing and selling such drugs, to prevent further misuse, aside from working hard to recover all unused medications in homes.
He has quoted a 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and pointed out that more than 22 million Americans age 12 and older - nearly 9% of the U.S. population - use illegal drugs. More than 23 million Americans age 12 and older are currently undergoing treatment to stop drug addiction (Cooper).
The use of drugs among people is not a new phenomenon. It has been part of human life since time immemorial. In fact, the Eskimos are the only people lacking tradition because they have been unfortunate
During screening process, the research procedures or interventions may not take place because of lack of informed consent. Prescreening can be performed in various methods on telephone or in person where the researchers conduct screening themselves (Spagnolo et al., 2015).
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