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The feasibility of different techniques for providing fresh water to arid regions of the world - Research Paper Example

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A Feasibility Report on Fresh Water Provision Techniques in Arid Regions Name: Presented to: Date: Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Fresh water provision techniques 3 2.1 Ground Water Drilling Technique 4 2.2 Desalination 6 3.0 Conclusion 7 4.0 List of references 9 Fresh Water Provision Techniques in Arid Regions 1.0 Introduction Though an estimated 70% of the world comprises of water mass, most regions continue to experience water scarcity most of the times…
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The feasibility of different techniques for providing fresh water to arid regions of the world

Download file to see previous pages... To make matters worse, the little water received in these areas is usually not safe for domestic, agriculture and commercial use and there an urgent need to provide fresh water. To do so, policy makers explore various fresh water provision techniques as discussed in subsequent sections of this report. 2.0 Fresh water provision techniques In endeavors to provide fresh water to the arid regions of the world, different techniques are employed that include ground water drilling, desalinization and piping techniques. These techniques often vary from those employed in areas where precipitation is high. Therefore, climatic conditions in arid regions dictate to a large extent what technique(s) is most appropriate. Key issues in water provision and water resource management which dictate appropriate techniques will include availability of adequate supply, conservation measures, cost effectiveness, pricing and sustainability. 2.1 Ground Water Drilling Technique Ground water is normally obtained from aquifers through drilling and piping the water to the surface for various uses. This technique involves identification of areas in arid regions that have sufficient and quality underground water for agriculture, domestic and commercial use. The technique is more preferred to its low cost of establishment compared to other techniques like desalination. To ensure sustainable use of underground water, policy makers and regulatory authorities establishes water databases through registration of wells and their yields, documenting water composition, control of drilling in all phases and regular monitoring of water table and changes in salinity. However, the challenge with this technique is that over time demand for fresh water has increased both socially and economically requiring more wells to be dug. For example, over the last 3 decades, demand for water within the United Arab Emirates and other Gulf states which are often classified as arid regions, was estimated to increase from 4,250Mm3/ year in 1980 to 35,395Mm3/ year by 2010 (Alsharhan et al 2001, 277). Therefore, this means that governments in arid regions have to drill more wells or explore alternative fresh water supply techniques. This water supply technique faces various challenges relating to quality and sustainability. One, underground water may contain dissolved solid substances whose value is above the established norm. Establishing these levels require sophisticated technology which is costly and often not at the disposal of most governments in arid regions. Where levels are higher than the benchmark standard, such wells have to be closed or alternative technologies to reduce the hazardous effects of these particles employed (California Environmental Protection Agency 1995, 5). For example, high fluoride levels are common in arid regions where fluoride levels have to be reduced to the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce effects of tooth decay and bone weakening. In addition, underground water ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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