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Commissioning pneumatic trainer system - Literature review Example

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1.1.1 Background Pneumatics technology has been of remarkable importance in work-place rationalization as well as automation from the old fashioned manual works to the use of modern machines and robots (Majumdar, 1996). This medium has been made suitable for use in modern manufacturing and production plants by various characteristics of compressed air (Blaine and Binder, 2005)…
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Commissioning pneumatic trainer system

Download file to see previous pages... Pneumatics is defined as the study of gases and air and the relationship between their volume, temperature and pressure (Venkannah, 2006). Pneumatics as a discipline deals with the mechanical properties of gases, e.g. pressure and density, and the application of these principles to solve various engineering problems using of compressed gas as the main source of power (Beater, 2007). The compressed gas that is most commonly used is air, and it normally contains energy stored in a potential state. When the compressed air expands, working energy is produced in the form of kinetic energy and pressure (Beater, 2007). 1.1.2 Hardware Pneumatic systems can be broken down into several levels representing the hardware components and the signal flow as shown below (Venkannah, 2006). The major components of a pneumatic system are; Compressor Check valve Accumulator Directional valve Actuator The assembly of a basic pneumatic system is as shown below. Key: A. Air Compressor B. Check Valve C. Accumulator D. Directional Valve E. Actuator The following are discussed below. A. Compressor The air compressor unit is driven by a motor, and it acts as the source of air for the whole system (Dale & Fardo, 2009). It increases the pressure of air by compressing it so as to reduce its volume. This unit uses electrical power to generate mechanical force through the rotation of a motor. Once the air is compressed, it is stored in a receiving tank. The compressed air is then dispersed to the extra parts of the system at a high pressure when needed (Dale & Fardo, 2009). Pneumatic systems must also be equipped with air processing components that will condition the air before it is used. The conditioning involves filtering, regulating the temperature and lubrication (Dale & Fardo, 2009). These three sub units can be offered as one set known as the FRL Unit (Soundara, 2007). Filter unit It filters any foreign particles that may be contained in the compressed air. However, the size of the particle that can be filtered depends on the type of filter used (Mitchell, 2000). Regulator unit It is used to uphold the desired pressure to the system’s control and consumption unit. Lubricating unit The lubricator supplies the compressed air with a film of oil and ensures that the air carries oil to the interior parts of both the control valves and the cylinder. However, the usage of lubricators is becoming less popular since nowadays manufacturers are making valves that do not require lubrication (Soundara, 2007). The filter and the regulator can be combined and used as a single or as individual units. B. Check valves These are one way valves that allow pressurized air to enter the pneumatic system and at the same time preventing backflow of the pressurized air to the compressor hence preventing loss of pressure. They help keep the pressurized air locked until it is released either manually or electrically after it reaches a certain amount of pressure. C. Accumulator It stores compressed air and prevents any surges that may occur as a result of pressure. It usually has a larger volume than the air compressor. The large volume is of great significance as it helps dampen the pulsations of pressure as well as serve as a reserve to supply both large and brief volumes of air on demand. Accumulators also act as a medium for ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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