Free

The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This assignment discusses English segments of phonetics and phonology. The assignment considers the elimination of a phonemic distinction in a particular phonological context. Also, the assignment discusses the effects of the biomechanical performance properties of the vocal tract…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.2% of users find it useful
The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English"

1) Context sensitive variation of speech - 2 basic types can be distinguished the effects of the biomechanical performance properties of the vocal tract and 2) the effects of the nature and organization of the neuromuscular control mechanisms which actuate articulator movements.

English does not normally have nasalized sounds - but vowels preceding nasal consonants in English, as in sand or can't or bend, may well be nasalized because of the following consonant. Many English segments may be articulated in certain contexts as sounds from which they are normally distinguished. [s] is distinguished from [sh] in English, but [s] may be articulated as [sh] in an appropriate context, i.e. when [s] precedes [j], as in this year, or tissue. These distinctions usually go unnoticed within the community if they occur regularly, but can attract attention by those of the non-English speaking community, or those learning English.

The effect of delay on articulator movement can be seen in English words such as more and now, where the beginning of the vowel is nasalized, partly because of the delay in raising the velum at the end of the nasal consonant. The nasality of the initial consonant thus overlaps onto the following oral vowel. A similar effect tends to nasalize the voiced fricative following [n] in such words as burns and bronze.









2) Phonological neutralization is the elimination of a phonemic distinction in a particular phonological context.

With adds and adze, there is a neutralization of the word final voicing contrast.
In most varieties of English, this occurs in particular before // and (in rhotic dialects) before coda /r/ (that is, /r/ followed by a consonant or at the end of a word); it also occurs, to a lesser extent, before tautosyllabic // and /g/. Some examples of neutralization of // to /e/ before // are beg, egg, Greg, keg, leg and peg's coming to rhyme with Craig, Hague, plague and vague.
Some varieties (including most American English dialects) have significant vocalic neutralization before intervocalic /r/, as well.
Mergers before intervocalic r are quite widespread in North American English.
The mary-marry-merry merger is the mergers of // and // with historical /e/ before intervocalic /r/.
The mirror-nearer merger is the merger of // with /i/ before intervocalic /r/.
The hurry-furry merger is the merger of // before intervocalic /r/ with //.
The furry-ferry merger, common in the Philadelphia accent, is the merger of (//) and (//) before intervocalic /r/.
The tory-torrent merge is the merger of // and // before intervocalic /r/.
The salary-celery merger is a conditioned merger of // and /e/ before /l/ occurring in New Zealand and Victorian English.
The fill-feel merger is a conditioned merger of // and /i/ before /l/ occurring in some dialects of American English.
The fell-fail merger is a conditioned merger of // and /e/ before /l/ occurring in some varieties of Southern American English.
The full-fool merger is a conditioned merger of // and /u/ before /l/ mainly occurring the North Midland accent of American English.
Four other conditioned mergers before /l/ which require more study have been mentioned in the literature and are as follows.
/l/ and /ol/ (bull vs. bowl)
/l/ and /l/ (hull vs. hall)
/l/ and /l/ (bull vs. hull)
/l/ and /ol/ (hull vs. hole) Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English Assignment”, n.d.)
The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English Assignment. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/education/1521649-phonology-high-school-essay
(The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English Assignment)
The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English Assignment. https://studentshare.org/education/1521649-phonology-high-school-essay.
“The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English Assignment”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/education/1521649-phonology-high-school-essay.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English

Phonology

..., P 2005, Speech sounds, Routledge. Bloomer, A, Griffiths, P, & Merrison, A 2005, Introducing language in use: a coursebook, Illustrated, Routledge. Chalker, S, & Weiner, E 1998, The Oxford dictionary of English grammar, Illustrated: Oxford University Press. Consonants, viewed 9 July 2011, . Carr, P 1999, English phonetics and phonology: an introduction, Illustrated, Wiley-Blackwell. Finegan, E 2007, Language: its structure and use, 5th edn, illustrated, Cengage Learning. Manell, R 2009, Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University, Viewed 9 July 2011, phonetics/phonetics/consonants/place.html>. McMahon, A 2002, An introduction to English phonology, Edinburgh University Press... common denominator which defines that class to the exclusion of all sounds, or phonemes, in a language...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Phonetics Lesson

...? Phonetics Number: Phonetics Phonetics refers to a branch of linguistics, which comprises of the study of the sounds related to human speech, or the corresponding aspects of sign in case of sign languages (Bickford, 2006). Phonetics is concerned with the physical aspects of speech signs or sounds (phones), acoustic properties, their physiological production, auditory awareness, and neurophysiological condition. Phonology, on the other hand, is related to the abstract and grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. Phonics lessons generate the best results for enhancing language. This paper will focus on one aspect of phonetics, Articulatory Phonetics, and create a lesson plan for English Language Learners (ELLs... ) with...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Forensic phonetics

...? Forensic Phonetics Preliminary assessments that should be carried out on forensic analysis speech samples to establish their adequacy for speaker comparison and identification analysis The use of voice recognition for forensic investigations goes back to several centuries back with the first case to employ the use of voice recognition in a case being the trial of William Hulet in 1660. The use of voice recognition in forensic investigation is employed in cases where the witness in a particular case did not see the criminal but rather heard their voice while carrying out the crime. The witnesses’ correct recognition and recollection of the voice off the criminal will therefore determine the conclusion of the investigation or case... ...
4 Pages(1000 words)Coursework

Phonetics

...Sonober Abidi Lane Phonetics October 31, 2008 Lesson Plan in Phonetics This lesson plan is intended for Bisun, a Hindu and Dimitry, a Russian. The paper shall present the diagnostic speech and the analysis of the speech problems of Bisun and Dimitry. A one-hour lesson for them is then presented. Below are the transcriptions of the speeches of the two students: Bisun, Hindu This (i) is free speaking homework assignment two. Pause Tickets to see his favorite team play is a good gift (ah) because guys love sports. A tie is a good gift as well because it is romantic (pause) and it also shows that she cares (k) for him. A gift that he can use for his favorite hobby is also a good gift again it shows...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Importance Of The Studying English

...Importance Of The Studying English Me fail English? That unpossible! -Ralph Wiggum English is a language that is spoken all over the world today. It has set the precedent for globalization to occur on a far greater scale. I am able to say this more so because coming from a country that does not speak English, I realize the importance placed on this language in my region. Any individual who excels in this language is considered an ambitious and successful person who has learned and exceeded far beyond his own person. It is for this reason that the English...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Phonology

...and the other occurring in an entirely different environment. Example: Consider the allophones [p'] and [p]. [p'], the aspirated phoneme occurs when there is a syllable onset and is followed by a stressed vowel (as in the word put) and the unaspirated phoneme [p] occurs all other times. Here we see complementary distribution in similar phones. Every time it need not be allophones. For example,[h] and ['] are in complementary distribution, since [h] only occurs at the beginning of a syllable and ['] only at the end. Since they have hardly anything in common in phonetic terms, they are better considered as separate phonemes. Phonological conditioning and conditioning factors: Consider the words- cats,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Case Study

Evolutionary Phonology

...change incorporating misperception and variable articulation can account for attested sound systems without reference to markedness or naturalness within the synchronic grammar” (Blevins i). Therefore, Blevins’ perspective on phonology looks beyond the limitations of a pre-existing structural synchronistic framework for understanding voicing patterns across different languages. Moreover, Blevins’ evolutionary phonology model considers perspective and evolution of culture in influencing language development and phonetics concomitantly. Additionally, it is important to note that whilst Blevins’ evolutionary phonology model seeks to evaluate the...
39 Pages(9750 words)Essay

The Phonology and Semantics of the English language

...The Phonology and Semantics of English Language There are many problems, but the most serious is pollution. All types of pollution threaten our lives. We must preserve our natural resources and environment. Civil movements, to preserve the environment are increasing. Laws should be made to prevent air pollution. ðɛr ɑr mɛni prɑbləmz, bət ðə most sɪriəs ɪz pəluʃən. ɒl tajps əv pəluʃən θrɛtən awər lɪvz. wi məst prəzərv awər nætʃərəl risɒrsəz ænd ənvajrənmənt. sɪvəl muvmənts, tu prəzərv ðə ənvajrənmənt ɑr ɪnkrisɪŋ. lɒz ʃʊd bi med tu prɪvɛnt ɛr pəluʃən. Phonetics is the production of speech sounds by humans, often without former knowledge of the language being spoken....
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Phonetics and Phonology

.... Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research SR-99, pp.1-23. Browman, C.P. and Goldstein, L. (1990) Gestural specification using dynamically defined articulatory structures. Journal of Phonetics 18, pp. 299-320. Harrington, J., Kleber, F. and Reubold, U. (2011) The contributions of the lips and the tongue to the diachronic fronting of high back vowels in Standard Southern British English. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 41 (2), pp. 137-156. Kent, R.D. and Murray, A.D. (1982) Acoustic features of infant vocalic utterances. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 72 (2), pp. 353-365. Ladefoged, P. and Johnson, K. (2011) A Course in Phonetics....
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Phonetics

...Arabic Vowels. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04391-8_21 Odisho, E. Y. (2005). Techniques of teaching comparative pronunciation in Arabic and English. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=6YNohRnQ6j8C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=arabic+and+english+diphthong&source=bl&ots=eXLnUhxatL&sig=e-Dz-wWsfDEpm_dspAx7d76xypU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=QxpeVK_pOtLXasDJgpgH&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=arabic%20and%20english%20diphthong&f=false Robert, M. (2013). US English Monophthongs. Retrieved from http://clas.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetics/phonetics/vowelgraphs/USE_Monophthongs.html Verhoeven. J. & Daniel, L. (2011). Frequency Analysis of Arabic Vowels in...
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic The Importance of Phonetics & Phonology in English for FREE!

Contact Us