Nobody downloaded yet

Review Of Literature - Research Proposal Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
REVIEW OF LITERATURE Available literature and the studies conducted have been clearly in support of the impact of teacher’s expectations on the organizational skills and consequently achievement levels of the students in general; with studies describing ‘Pygmalion Effect’, ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’, and ‘expectancy effect’…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.9% of users find it useful
Review Of Literature
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Review Of Literature"

Download file to see previous pages In contrast to elementary schools, students at middle schools are expected to be independent with respect to the arrangement of their study material, plan the tasks provided to them, keep track of their material and their schedule, meet deadlines and therefore exhibit specific organizational abilities (Salend, 1998). The present section aims to explore the available literature investigating the expectations of teachers’ from students with learning disability (LD), with special reference to the expectations of teachers’ regarding active participation of students with learning disabilities. Initiation of studies exploring the impact of teachers’ expectations on the performance levels of students with LD can be traced back to 1970s. The earliest studies established the negative effects of labels such as ‘mentally retarded’ leading to the development of ‘learned helplessness’. On the basis of early investigations the demarcations and differences in attitudes were clearly established. While lack of achievement in regular students was considered to be as a consequence of lack of effort; the same in case of LD students was attributed to lack of ability. This is in congruence with the attribution theory, which asserts that success or failure in an endeavor can be attributed to ‘sin or sickness’ that is the ‘efforts’ and the ‘ability or disability’. ...
This attitude of teacher sent non-verbal signals to the students that their competence levels are lower than the regular students in their class. On the basis of this rationale, they were able to justify their below par performance. Seminal early investigations involving 100 teachers and 1500 sixth grade students revealed significant trends in the expectation of teachers and their impact on students. The impact of high as well as low expectations was found to be lower in case of high achieving students, while the same was reported to be significant in low achieving students. Thus the low achievers performed much better in response to high expectations of the teacher; and conversely, exhibited significantly poor performance as a consequence of low expectations of teacher (Madon et al., 1997). The low expectations of the teachers however are sometimes unavoidable as in case of organizational behaviors of students with LD, since it is a highly frustrating aspect of classroom behavior, and disrupts the progress of classroom teaching-learning process repeatedly. Studies involving students from middle school students have revealed that these students often do exhibit failure to remember important assignments, materials required for the class, and class schedule (McMullen et al., 2007). Researchers have been able to attribute two specific causes for these behavioral problems and failure of LD students to meet teachers’ expectations of organization. The primary contributing cause has been specified to be that the LD students as a consequence of their deficits lack the ability of temporal-sequential organization. They lack the planning skills, are not able to assign time to different tasks, allocate time for completion of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Review Of Literature Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words”, n.d.)
Review Of Literature Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words. Retrieved from
(Review Of Literature Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 Words)
Review Of Literature Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 Words.
“Review Of Literature Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Review of Literature

...?Review of Literature Introduction Worldwide, countries have placed a strong emphasis on school attendance as a key strategy for educating their young towards adulthood, citizenship, and productivity. Typically, countries have adopted a form or system of compulsory education. The age range of compulsory education differ across countries and countries have various degrees of intensity and energy in implementing their compulsory education but a form of compulsory education is being implemented worldwide just the same. The young have to be exposed to education before they can even imbibe a portion of education. Even if not all of the education content is retained, exposure to the education content can lead...
15 Pages(3750 words)Dissertation

Review of Literature

... 2 July Review of Literature Islam is a diverse tapestry, with both extremes and in-between religious denominations, and so it cannot be categorized as secular or fundamentalist only. In this book, Islam: Religion, History and Civilization, Nasr explores and describes the immense grounds of Islamic history, theology, and philosophy. Nasr writes from the traditional Islam perspective, and he opposes secular modernist or fundamentalist perspectives, both of which he sees as extremist forms of Islam. He concludes that Islam will rarely change in the future, because doctrinal and practical orthodoxy that rests on one underlying belief- complete submission to Allah. In chapter 1 of the book Global Islamic Politics, Husain discusses... religions...
5 Pages(1250 words)Term Paper

Review of Literature

...? Health promotion al affiliation Review of Literature Goodman, Davies, Dinan, Tai & Iliffe define health promotionas the act of helping others and encouraging positive health among individuals within a given society through personal, private, and public means. Analysts define this skill as the science of promoting the protection and improving peoples’ health through education. Public health has been documented over the years to improve the well-being of people in a given society. The behavior activities include self responsibility, nutritional awareness physical fitness, and stress management. According to Callens, Tibbins & Lenney (2011) define health promotion as those activities that when put in place...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Review of Literature

...?Review of Literature Myers, J. (2003). Exercise and cardiovascular health. Circulation, 107, e2-e5. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000048890.59383.8D The article talks about the relationship between physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular health. It is suggested that more fit or active individuals are at a lower risk of getting coronary heart disease than inactive individuals. More than 250,000 individuals die every year in the United States due to lack of exercise. Exercise has numerous benefits such as reducing weight and reducing bad cholesterol. However, one question remains unanswered, how much exercise should one do. In the United States, the recommended time for exercise is 30 minutes...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Review of Literature

...? Review of Literature Review of Literature Contemporary primary nursing represents key changes spanning over 50 years in the profession. Nurses have transformed from the mere assistants and helpers for doctors they were in the 1960s, and are currently professionals in the healthcare industry in their own right. They are trained practitioners, capable of having a comprehensive picture of the whole healthcare situation like any other doctor or physician they work alongside. This paper will review literature that has been written by persons and organizations who are directly concerned with nursing, on the comparison of nursing in the 1960s...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Review of Literature- Annotated Bibliography

...perspectives in the treatment of the book and its contents. I do not intend to review Tolkien’s work but I want to present through this article the vast ways scholar’s like us have examined the book. The five articles were evaluated for the theories that they presented the manner in which these theories were revealed, and my own experience in reading the texts. The purpose for the analysis is to better appreciate the different perspectives that one can use to understand a work and the complexities in the themes and messages that can be derived from any form of literature which includes even fantasy novels and children’s books. Baptizing the Imagination: The Fantastic as the Subversion of Fundamentalism...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

Summary on Review of Literature

...Some Discussion of the Relevant Literature Several important studies have been conducted on the issue of Government intervention inrelation to Singapore’s SMEs survivability during the recession. According to the release from the Singapore’s Prime Minister’s Office, most of the categories of Singapore’s SMEs have been seriously bashed by the recession, but which is mainly felt in its nascent furniture business (PMO 2009; Roach 2009, p.65). This has been a disturbing scenario for this small Asian country as Bjerke (1998) strongly believed that SMEs are considered to be the backbone of any country’s economy. Even with their limited resources, they do not only produce more jobs but are also more innovative than large firms....
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Review of literature

...Review of Literature Literature Review Hayward, Steiner and Sproule, 2007, carried out a qualitative descriptive study to evaluate the perceptions of women on a court mandated batterer treatment program in which their spouse or partner was a participant. A key finding among the perceptions of these women that emerged in this study was the positive change in the communication pattern in their relationship. A majority of the participants in the study perceived their male partners as demonstrating more openness in their emotional communication and attributed this positive change to the Men’s Non-violence course that these men attended (Hayward, Steiner & Sproule, 2007). High consumption of alcohol in men can arouse anger in men... against...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Critical review of Literature

... of the literature on the topic will be conducted. In this review, primary research on alcohol dependency in young people will be explored to show some of the most important issues that this age group has with alcohol dependency. This will highlight the important areas upon which to focus when considering interventions, and suggest areas that may be missing from current knowledge. Additionally, current policy guidelines in the UK will be analysed to ascertain whether they are appropriate when considered in light of the literature review. Aim The main aim of the research is to highlight the most appropriate interventions for children and young people suffering from alcohol dependence. Objectives The objectives for the research... are: To...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Review of Literature Summaries

...Review of Literature Summaries Review of Literature Summaries The article, Issues and Innovations in Nursing Practice… Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care is an article whose focus is PPD and the positive effects of its early detection and intervention (Davies, Howells, & Jenkins, 2003). In a longitudinal research, a three year period of time allowed researchers to assess a total of eighty six women. Data from the participants was collected through an intervention protocol utilizing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) (Davies, Howells, & Jenkins, 2003). Since the first month, there was a data collection exercise after every three months postpartum from the participants. Davies, Howells... , &...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Proposal on topic Review Of Literature for FREE!

Contact Us