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NPR's Report concerning phonemic awareness - Research Paper Example

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NRP’s 12 Key Concepts in Phonemic Awareness and Phonetic Instruction In learning to read, phonics plays an essential role in learning how to particularly connect the sounds of spoken English. Phonics has been a widely used teaching method used to better learn connections between letter patterns and the sounds they represent…
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NPRs Report concerning phonemic awareness
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NRP’s 12 Key Concepts in Phonemic Awareness and Phonetic Instruction In learning to read, phonics plays an essential role in learning how to particularly connect the sounds of spoken English. Phonics has been a widely used teaching method used to better learn connections between letter patterns and the sounds they represent. In National Reading Panel’s report, twelve key concepts on phonemic awareness and phonics instruction were discussed especially on how it could support a balanced reading program. Five of the twelve key concepts are dedicated for phonemic awareness. Phonemic awareness was defined by McDoniel (2008) as the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds in words. She also made clear that it is entirely different from phonological awareness where the “student recognize and manipulate large parts of the spoken language. Moving on, the five key concepts in phonemic awareness are: (1) phonemic awareness can be taught and learned, (2) phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read, (3) phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to spell, (4) phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when children are taught to manipulate phonemes by using the letters of the alphabet, and (5) phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when it focuses on only one or two types of phoneme manipulation, rather than several types. The first of the five ideas in phonemic awareness aims to teach the students how to see the various parts of speech within words. However, students should also be taught on how they will be able to visualize these parts. First and foremost, the student should be taught what are phonemes and its importance in reading. There are a number of methods in teaching this to a child. Second in the list tells the role of phonemic awareness instruction in implementing phonemic awareness. In NRP’s report, it was mentioned that phonemic awareness instruction can improve the student’s ability to comprehend and even establish a good vocabulary. The third point aims to teach the children how to spell the words. Learning to read goes hand in hand with the ability to spell. McDoniel (2008) mentioned that “students can improve their reading and spelling if they're taught how to use letters when working with phonemes. Students who are taught letters and sounds together can relate phonemic awareness to reading and writing.” Furthermore, phonemic awareness instruction plays a crucial role in this particular learning. The fourth item discusses the most effective way on how to teach the student how to manipulate phonemes by using the letters of the alphabet. Enhancing ones skill in manipulating phonemes can give the child a good training in blending letters together to form new words. And last of the five items in phonemic awareness discussed the importance of focusing on one or two types of manipulation rather than a motley of several types. It is of utmost importance not to overload the student with quite a number of ways in combining sounds together. The second part of the twelve key concepts discusses phonics instruction.. There were seven key concepts in phonics instruction discussed in NRP’s report. The contents of the phonics instruction are: (1) systematic and explicit phonics instruction is more effective than non-systematic or no phonics instruction., (2) systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves kindergarten and first-grade children's word recognition and spelling., (3) systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves children's reading comprehension, (4) systematic and explicit phonics instruction is effective for children from various social and economic levels, (5) systematic and explicit phonics instruction is particularly beneficial for children who are having difficulty learning to read and who are at risk for developing future reading problems, (6) systematic and explicit phonics instruction is most effective when introduced early, (7) phonics instruction is not an entire reading program for beginning readers. Through phonics instruction, students can learn better the relationship between letters and sounds and help them learn to read and write as well. Alphabetical principles are also mentioned to have great importance in learning the systematic and predictable relationships between letters and the sound they represent. The first item in the second lot of the key concepts tells that phonics instruction is most effective when then it is systematic and explicit. Through a systematic and explicit type of instruction, students are going to have stronger and reliable reading skills in the next grades. The second key concept tackles the significance of word recognition and spelling and how it will be improved using systematic and phonetic instruction. Students who learned phonics at his or her earlier years have greater chances of success in reading. They are capable how to focus on reading and comprehending a particular book or story. The third item tell that phonics instruction should be direct to the student’s reading comprehension. It should also be regular and clear because if not it will greatly hinder the child’s language learning process. The fourth concept focuses on the social and economic considerations on phonics instruction. Systematic and explicit phonics instruction can be greatly applied here for students from various social and economic levels require a specific manner or instruction. The fifth key concept is dedicated especially for those students who are having a difficulty in learning to read and are seen to have a potential to develop future reading problems. This key concept discussed the importance of clarity and concision to prevent the student from being left behind by its peers. The sixth item in the list tackles the importance of introducing phonics instruction at an early age. Younger students are more able to develop phonics skills compared to older ones. However, it should be also kept in mind that teaching the younger bracket is as challenging because they are more vulnerable and susceptible so they should be taught carefully with correct lessons. Lastly, phonics instruction actually implements no limits on anyone who would like to read. But it is not a complete reading program that would address suit every learner’s need. Phonics instruction is just an add-in to any existing reading program to make it more effective. It was discussed in the earlier parts of this paper that phonemic awareness and phonics instruction are practically the building blocks towards a balanced reading program. The student would be able to hear, identify and manipulate sounds in spoken words through phonemic awareness while phonics teaches the relationship between letters and sounds. The three additional factors to create a balanced reading program namely, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. Developing fluency plays a vital role in helping the student to have lesser difficulty to read text quickly and accurately through improvement in fluency. Through phonemic awareness and phonics instruction, the student’s fluency can help them evaluate instructions better and have instructional goals. Along with fluency is the improvement of vocabulary. With a range of vocabulary that is constantly getting wider, the students will be able to communicate effectively with the precise use of words. And lastly, text comprehension will be developed simultaneously through explicit instruction and cooperative learning. References Krashen, Steven. (2002). The National Reading Panel and ELLs: Phonemic awareness. Retrieved from McDoniel, Mistu. (2008.) 12 Key Concepts from National Reading Panel's Report on Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction. Retrieved from Phonemic and Phonic Awareness in the Classroom . (2008). Retrieved from Phonological Awareness (n.d.) Retrieved from Read More
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