Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. Error Analysis and English Language Writing.
The need and urge to communicate with others in the society is the most dominating factor that influences and accelerates the learning process of first language. …
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Formal class room learning of a second language presents many barriers to the learner because learner had already acquired his first language and uses it most effectively to communicate in the class room. This gives a psychological disadvantage to the learner clinching to and always ready to fall back on first language in case complex scenarios occur (Yule, 1985). Thus Steinberg (1982) argues that it is quite possible that second language learning process is accelerated if the learner is provided with an environment presenting stimuli through socialization with speakers of target language.
Yule (1985) and Brown (1994) identified age as another barrier to second language acquisition (SLA), which they referred to as critical period. According to them, there is a certain age limit that allows a learner to demonstrate optimal language acquisition skill, beyond what is very difficult to learn another language.
Approaches to Second Language Acquisition
Different models and analytical approaches are employed by researchers in second language acquisition. This included the grammar translation method, the direct method, the audio-lingual approach and the communicative approach. Yule (1985) gives more importance to communicative approach due to its error tolerances. ...
According to Lennon (1991), an error is "a linguistic form or combination of forms which in the same context and under similar conditions of production would, in all likelihood, not be produced by the speakers' native speakers’ counterparts". In the second language teaching/learning process the error has always been regarded as something negative which must be avoided. As a consequence, teachers have always adopted a repressive attitude towards it. On one hand, it was considered to be a sign of inadequacy of the teaching techniques and on the other hand it was seen as a natural result of the fact that since by nature we cannot avoid making errors we should accept the reality and try to deal with them. Fortunately, little by little the error has been seen from a different point of view being made obvious that we can learn from our mistakes. George (1972) is of the view that learners make errors in both comprehension and production, the first being rather scanty investigated. Children learning their first language, adult native speakers, and second language learners; they all make errors which have a different name according to the group committing the error. Children's errors have been seen as "transitional forms", the errors by native speaker are called "slips of the tongue" and the second language errors are considered unwanted forms. 2.4 Background of Error Analysis Earlier in 1960’s, behaviorist theory formed the basis of second language acquisition, which weighed language acquisition not more than just acquiring set of new language skills. For a considerable period, linguistic research focused on interference of learner’s first language with acquisition of second language. Thus researchers used contrastive analysis to predict the areas that need attention
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