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The Element Nitrogen - Research Paper Example

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The Element Nitrogen Introduction and Properties of Nitrogen Nitrogen is a non-metallic, p-block element from group 15-period 2 of the periodic table of the element. In 1772, a Scottish physician and chemist Daniel Rutherford (1749-1819) performed an experiment that leads to discovery of nitrogen…
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The Element Nitrogen
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Download file to see previous pages Nitrogen is the most abundant gaseous component of earth’s atmosphere constituting 78% by volume.It is colorless, odorless and commonly inert gas.Nitrogen is a gas at room temperature with density of 0.001165 grams /cc. Solid nitrogen lets at 63.35 K and has a boiling point of 77.35 K. It has a relatively low heat of fusion and heat of vaporization of 51.48 J /g and 2.7928 J /mole respectively. Solid nitrogen has specific heat close to water at 1.040 J / g 0 C. Nitrogen has two stable naturally occurring isotopes, 14N and 15N. The predominant isotope being 14N has 99.636% natural abundance. Other isotopes are also noted but are short lived and decay rapidly. Triple bonding in diatomic nitrogen N2 is one of the strongest. Nitrogen has electronegativity of 3.04 and has 5 valence electrons in its outer shell; therefore, nitrogen is commonly trivalent in most compounds. Nitrogen is also non-flammable, therefore, is not combustible. It also has considerably high first ionization and second ionization energy. Compounds of Nitrogen Nitrogen is non-metallic element. It commonly forms oxide in its different oxidation state. Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the most common oxides formed by nitrogen. It also forms dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) using its higher oxidation state.Nitrogen also forms hydride as ammonia (NH3). Nitrogen combines with Fluorine to form various fluorides like Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), Dinitrogen tetrafluoride (N2F4), cis-difluorodiazine (N2F2) and trans-difluorodiazine (N2F2). Nitrogen chloride and Nitrogen iodide can also be formed; NCl3and NI3. Ammonia (NH3) Ammonia is a colorless gas with characteristic pungent odor. It has density of 0.86 kg/m3. It is soluble in water to form basic hydroxide NH4OH. Solubility is increased at lower temperatures. Ammonia has trace concentration in the atmosphere as result of decaying matter. Ammonia and ammonium salts are present in rainwater and some areas where volcanic activity is noted. Ammonia is also present in soil and seawater. It is also found in Pluto, Jupiter and Uranium. The ancient Greek, European alchemists and the romans have historical writings about nitrogen. In 1774,Joseph Priestley successfully isolated gaseous ammonia and he called it alkaline air. Nitric acid (HNO3) Nitric acid is a strong acid commonly called aqua fortis and spirit of nitre. It is also a common oxidizing agent in organic and inorganic chemistry. Anhydrous nitric acid has density of 1.512 g/cm3, melting point of -420C and boils at 830C. Nitric acid partially decomposes to nitrogen dioxide (N2O) at room temperature. Nitric acid has been known since antiquity and is commonly used in alchemy. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish gas at room temperature. It is primarily an intermediate in the synthesis of nitric acid and a major air pollutant. It has density of 2.62 g cm-3and boils at 21 °C. Nitric oxide (NO) Also called nitorgen monoxide. It is a free radical and is unstable in normal conditions. It is a a byproduct of combustion of fuel oils and automobile engines. Nitric oxide is colorless and has denisty of 1.3402 g dm?3, melts at ?164 °C, and boils at ?152 °C. Solubility in water is 74 cm3 dm?3. Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Also called nitrogen peroxide. It is commonly found in equlibrium with NO2. It is known for its oxidizing power and corrosive properies. It is colorless gas with ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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