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Toxin - Research Paper Example

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A neurotoxin is any form of exogenous chemical whose introduction in the body will result in an adverse effect on the functioning of the nervous system cells in both developing and mature states. Neurotoxins specifically target components of the neurological part of the body,…
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Download file to see previous pages Ingestion of arsenic in the development stage of the nervous system results in the neurites’ growth being inhibited (CDC, 2011). This is due to the formation of arsenite, which is an arsenic metabolite that forms within 24 hours of ingestion. The arsenite toxic mechanism is to create an increased level of calcium ion levels between neurons that causes the transmembrane potential of the mitochondria to reduce which brings about death of the cell as an eventuality due to caspases (CDC, 2011).
Many drugs may result in the manifestation of cardiovascular effects in the form of changes in blood pressure and heart rate (Kacew & Lee, B. 2013). However, the ingestion of some of these substances in significant amounts may result in them having toxic characteristics of the cardiovascular system. Digoxin is one such compound. This is a form of cardiac glycoside that is purified after the extraction from the foxglove plant. The compound is used in the treatment of heart diseases in regulating amounts. However, acute over dosage results in the development of marked bradycardia with the prolongation of the QRS and PR (Thanacoody & Waring, 2008). The toxicity of the compound is similar to arsenic as it affects concentrations of calcium in cells. The compound introduction to the cardiovascular system in vast quantities results conducting and myocardial tissues’ inhibition of ATPase pump of Na+/K+ (Thanacoody & Waring, 2008). This property leads to a reduction in the intracellular efflux of calcium through the exchange mechanisms of Na+/Ca2+. The effect is an increase in the calcium intracellular concentrations. That manifests in the form of marked bradycardia (Thanacoody & Waring, 2008). It is also associated with sinus arrests and haemodynamic instability due to varying atrioventricular block degrees.
Cadmium is also a toxic substance to the body. However, its toxicity has to do with the endocrine system. The endocrine system is the system of glands ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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