The following paper entitled "Types of Human Cloning" deals with the peculiarities of the cloning process. It is stated that cloning takes place as living things including plant life, bacteria and insects are in the process of reproducing asexually. …
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During the period of 2006, FDA approved the use of cloned products such as plants and animals for the dietary purpose of individuals living in the US. Human cloning is a term used to define the creation of a genetically similar copy of a human being (MacKinnon 9). In this research the focus will not be cloning of animals and plants, rather the focus will be on human cloning, types of human cloning and the advantages and disadvantages associated with it. Reproductive cloning is one form of human cloning which is used to produce one or more than one individuals who are genetically identical to each other. During the period of the 1990s, the process of reproductive cloning was utilized in order to create identical clones of mammals such as sheep and pigs and one of the most famous examples of this activity was the production of Dolly (MacKinnon 56). Later several countries started banning the process in order to put a stop to the process of reproductive cloning for human beings. Another form of human cloning is DNA cloning which is even regarded as molecular cloning or cloning of the gene or recombinant DNA technology which is used to refer to the procedure through which multiple replicas of an individual fragment of DNA is created (MacKinnon 139). This kind of cloning can be conducted in several forms, for example, cloning of entire fragment of the gene can be conducted or a portion of the fragment of the DNA can be cloned or certain sequences of the DNA can be cloned. There are four steps involved in the process of DNA cloning, these include, fragmentation in which string of DNA is divided, the next step is the ligation part in which different parts of DNA are glued together in a sequence that is desirable, the third step is recognized as transfection, in this step the newly created DNA is inserted into cells and the last step is recognized as selection in which those cells that were transfected successfully with the DNA are selected (MacKinnon 116).
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This was a significant step in the field of science. Animal cloning is today possible due to improved research in science. This led to beginning of research on human cloning. Human cloning has become the subject of discussion in various fields. This debate is expected tao continue until a justifiable compromise is realized.
It should be remembered that the history of cloning is a tedious and tiresome journey with ingenious methods applied. At the Roslyn Institute the successfully cloned a lamb but took 277 tries to finally clone it. Scientists working on the project knew all through their work in progress that once successful Cloning can be a very useful tool if used under the right conditions.
Cloning is performed to fulfill therapeutic objectives and therefore it is categorized as therapeutic cloning and for reproductive purposes under reproductive cloning to generate the replica of human for enhancing the number. Therapeutic cloning is emerging as an active area of research and comprise of cell cloning from the adult for therapeutic purposes.
On the other hand reproductive cloning generates human clones, this is prohibited in many nations. Research is going on for replacement cloning which is an amalgamation of therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Replacement cloning would necessitate the substitution of widely injured, abortive, or deteriorating body/ organs by means of cloning, ensuing whole or partial organ/ tissue transplantation.
It is the possibility of human cloning which has captured attention all over the world. The current controversy surrounding animal cloning and the possibility of human cloning does not mark the first time that biological innovation has generated such widespread concern.
Yet, human beings have found that there may be potential benefits in creating human clones for a number of different reasons. The debate on this subject has been going on for decades and will likely continue to do so for some time.
Although cloning has some advantages, a lot of ethical issues have erupted resulting to major debates on the viability of this biotechnology. There are a lot of unanswered questions which until a time when more and more laboratory tests will prove safe to carry on, should be shelved and not gambled with at the risk of human beings.
Human Cloning Name: Instructor: Course: June 14, 2012 Human cloning Introduction Human cloning refers to the use of technology to generate another human being that has the same DNA as another currently or previously existing human being (Human Genome Project Information, 2009, Para.
The author states that cloning is discouraged by various nations as cloning is against the rule of nature, which is generating humans, nurturing them and paving the way for uncertainties related with the repercussions of science. At present human population has crossed the figure of 7 billion, a huge burden on the planet.
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