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Date Questions Student Response Part I Original DNA Strand: 3’-T A C C C T T T A G T A G C C A C T-5’ Transcription (base sequence of RNA): AUG-GGA-AAU-CAU-CGG-UGA Translation (amino acid sequence): MET (START)-GLY-ASN-HIS-ARG-STOP Mutated gene sequence one: 3’-T A C G C T T T A G T A G C C A T T-5' Transcription (base sequence of RNA): AUG-CGA-AAU-CAU-CGG-UAA Translation (amino acid sequence): MET (START)-ARG-ASN-HIS-ARG-STOP Mutated gene sequence two: 3’-T A A C C T T T A C T A G G C A C T-5’ Transcription (base sequence of RNA): AUU-GGA-AAU-GAU-CCG-UGA Translation (amino acid sequence): ILE-GLY-ASN-ASP-PRO-STOP What is the significance of the first and last codons of…
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Download file to see previous pages What meaning do these mRNA codons have for protein synthesis? Explanation: mRNA is essential in protein synthesis because it transports genetic information from the DNA contained in the nucleus to its place in the ribosome. In short, mRNA contains the genetic information needed to make proteins during transcription. The protein molecule that results from the process therefore has genetic information identical to the original genetic material of the individual (Clark, Protein Synthesis, 2007). Did the two mutations result in a change in the final proteins? If so, describe the change. Response/ explanation: All mutations will definitely result in the production of different final proteins, such as the changes caused by the three mutations in the diagram above. Specifically, the two genetic mutations above were significant. In the first mutation, the mutation coded for ILE when in fact MET should be the normal initiation code. The second mutation coded for ASP and PRO instead of HIS and ARG when the gene is normal. However, the third mutation is not that significant since UAA is also a termination codon just like UGA. Such mutations that result in significant changes in proteins may actually manifest as physiological problems in the individual later on (Clark, DNA Mutations, 2007). In general, why might a change in amino acid sequence affect protein function? Explanation: Protein function may be affected even by slight changes in amino acid sequence. This happens in protein synthesis. These changes may manifest as genetic disorders in the individual or even death (Clark, DNA Mutations, 2007). Part II Punnett Square a. Chances (%) for healthy child, not a carrier b. Chances (%) for child that is carrier for cystic fibrosis trait c. Chances (%) for child with cystic fibrosis Fill out/adapt Punnett Square: ___C___ __c___ ___C___ CC Cc ___c___ Cc cc a. Chances (%) for healthy child, not a carrier: 25% (CC) b. % for child that is carrier for cystic fibrosis trait: 50% (Cc) c. % for child with cystic fibrosis: 25% (cc) Part III: Essay How do both meiosis and sexual reproduction (fertilization) produce offspring that differ genetically from the parents? Include steps in meiosis that increase variability Include the process of fertilization. Explanation: Crossing over, or the exchange of genetic material, which takes place during meiosis is responsible for the variation that may show up in the offspring. Prophase I of meiosis is the one responsible for crossing over. The result of this particular process is the production of chromosomes, some of which have maternal and some have paternal traits. During metaphase I, there is another method of variation and this is known as the independent assortment of homologous chromosome pairs. In anaphase I, there is also variation as there is random mixed variation of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Variation is also produced through fertilization because sex cells from both parents combine in many different ways in order to form a new individual. The chromosomes of the father ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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