Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Clostridium Botulinum The micro-organism Clostridium botulinum is known to be a gram positive bacterium shaped like a rod. It is commonly found in the soil hence making its distribution in the world enormous. These rod shaped bacterium is an anaerobic organism that grows best in environments with absent or low oxygen (United States Department of Agriculture)…
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Furthermore, these spores may at times get into the human gastrointestinal system and can be able to withstand the hostile environment. Once the spores reach the colon, some germinate to produce the bacteria, but in cases of adults, often cannot withstand competition from the normal microflora. However, in infants, due to lack or few existing microflora, these organisms often take advantage of multiplying and causing infections through production of botulinum toxin. In relation to botulinum toxin, there exist several types: Toxin A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. There are only types A, B, E and rarely F, which mostly cause the flaccid paralysis symptom in humans. The other types often cause disease in animals. Botulinum toxin often results to a condition called botulism. Botulism This is a paralytic illness that results due to the botulinum toxin. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin. People often get the toxin in their bodies via ingestion of contaminated foods already having botulinum toxin, through the bacteria infecting a wound and producing the toxin, and through consuming spores that produce the bacteria that finally produces the toxin to cause the condition (Smith 34). From the three modes of in which botulinum toxin could get into the human body system, one could identify three types of botulism namely; food borne botulism, wound botulism and infant botulism. Botulism is a fatal condition and all times considered medical emergencies. Botulism neurotoxins often prevent neurotransmitters in the nervous system from functioning properly. In fact, they usually inhibit the functioning of the motor control. A patient often exhibits paralysis stating from top to bottom, beginning from the eyes, face as it moves down the neck, chest, upper limbs and lower limbs (Shneider, Chang & Goodrich). Botulism often produces symptoms 12 to 72 hours on ingestion of contaminated food. Symptoms of botulism generally appear 12 to 72 hours after eating contaminated food. Infant botulism This type of botulism accounts for the most number of cases reported of botulism. It often affects children due to having few or lacking microflora in their colon (Hauschild 40). In homes, improperly canned foodstuffs often the spores of the bacteria, which upon ingestion by infants, result to overgrowth of the bacteria in the colon leading in production of botulinum toxin. Symptoms In infant botulism, symptoms exhibited include poor appetite, lethargy, constipation, drooling, weak cry, poor feeding, paralysis and drooling eyelids. The general symptoms which botulism poisoning produce entail fatigue, nausea, vomiting, double vision, dizziness, dry skin, dry throat, dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, body aches, muscle weakness, and paralysis (Canadian Food Inspection Agency). Treatment Treatment can be instituted in the early period before the toxin takes toll of the nervous system completely. An antitoxin is often administered in such cases (Emmeluth & Alcamo 67). The antitoxin functions by blocking the circulating botulinum toxin In the blood thereby limiting its action. This form of treatment only prevents the worsening of the patient’s condition. Patients from such incidences often take several weeks to recover completely from the effect. Prevention In relation to the three types of botulism and the mode through which the toxin gets to enter the human body, preventive measures can be
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It is an inflammatory reaction which tends to damage the myelin sheath. Muscular sclerosis is ranked as the most frequently occurring demyelinating disease and it affects one out of every 1000 people in the United States of America as well as in Europe (Robbins et al 2005 p 1382; Mitchell et al 2007 p 887; Govan et al 1995 p729).
of changing hand hygiene practices at the point of care for Registered Nurses, Licensed Practice Nurses and Nursing Assistants, while providing direct patient care on: Long Term Care Units (5A; 5C; CLC-B); Medial-Surgical Unit, (4M and 4S) and Intensive Care Units (4C).
Under specific condition, this bacterium may also grow in foods creating neurotoxin(s). When these toxin-containing foods are consumed, it results in a medical condition clinically referred to as botulism, which often causes death.
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Despite various side effects, the cosmetic use of Botox has gained widespread popularity, owing to the relatively less intrusive and less painful procedures that are adopted for this therapy. However, therapeutic treatment of botulism requires further research work before effective clinical benefits are derived from it.
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