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Exercise Psychology - Assignment Example

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Exercise Psychology 1. The heart pumps oxygen around the body in a variety of ways. The cardiovascular system is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. It’s noted that, “the heart is the pump of the cardiovascular system” and that “it consists of two main pumping chambers, the ventricles, and atria” (‘What is Exercise’, p…
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Download file to see previous pages The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the lungs the inhalation of oxygen then oxygenates this blood. The heart’s left atrium sends this now oxygenated blood through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. This ventricle contracts and pumps the blood into the aorta and then into the blood through the arteries as a means of supplying oxygen. This blood is then deoxygenated and returns to the body through the veins. This blood then enters the superior vena cava and the right atrium. After passing through the right atrium the blood goes through the right ventricle and finally back to the lungs and the pulmonary artery. 2. The aerobic energy system functions within the body as a means of producing energy. There are three specific parts to this system: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain (‘What is exercise’). The glycolysis component of the aerobic system is the primary energy source for cell activities. The body receives energy from the glycolic system through a process referred to as oxidation. During this process the body produces two ATP molecules, a reduced molecule of NAD (NADH), and two pyruvate molecules. The specific oxidation occurs within the cytoplasm of normal body cells or within the sarcoplasm of muscle cells. The second stage of the aerobic system is the Krebs Cycle. The Krebs Cycle specifically refers to the process where chemical reactions occur to produce carbon dioxide and ATP. Subsequently, these items are implemented for energy. This occurs in a cyclical process where oxygen is implemented towards the production of energy; it is then implemented through oxidation to convert ADP to ATP. The Krebs Cycle turns twice for each molecule of glucose that passes through the aerobic system (McMahon 1984, p. 112). In these regards, pyruvate molecules enter the Krebs Cycle and are converted to Acetyl Coenzymes. During this process for each molecule of pyruvate that is converted to acetyl coenzyme A, an NAD is also reduced (McMahon 1984, p. 112). Notably, the entirety of this process occurs within the matrix of the cells’ mitochondria. The final part of the aerobic system is the electron transport chain. Within the electron transport chain, stored energy is implemented as a gradient between protons across cells. This is then used to create ATP, or known as energy. This stage of the aerobic cycle occurs on the cristae; this is the unfolding of the membrane of the mitochondria (McMahon 1984, p. 112). The NADH+ from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle, and FADH+ pass through this electron transport chain and provides enough energy to produce three molecules of ATP (McMahon 1984, p. 112). Additionally, the molecules of FADH+ that are produced each provide two molecules of ATP. Many exercises implement the aerobic energy system. These forms of exercise are also referred to as cardio exercises as they impact the cardiovascular system. These exercises specifically implement oxygen via aerobic metabolic processes. As such the forms of exercise that most prominently implement the aerobic system are exercises such as running, jogging, or swimming (Fox 2001, p. 12). Additionally, there are specific exercise programs aimed to target the aerobic system, such as ‘aerobics’ or pilates. 3. The anaerobic energy system is contrasted from the aerobic energy system. One considers that there are two types of anaerobic energy ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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