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According to Leviathan a person who represents himself is a natural person, such a person representing his own thoughts and actions, whereas an artificial person represents the thoughts and actions of other people. It is possible for a person to alter his actions in different situations.
Hobbes defines an actor as a person who is artificial who executes actions of another person whereas an author is someone who is the owner of his own thoughts and words. Hobbes says that a state is an example of artificial person as it cannot express its own actions and thoughts and is controlled by a power known as the Sovereign. It is said that the concept of sovereignty was created with the state in mind during the English Civil War. Thomas Hobbes said that a sovereign represent its people. The actions of the sovereigns are the actions of its people and if any person of the state objects to what the sovereign does then he is actually objecting himself (Machiavelli and Hobbes, 2005)
Both Machiavelli and Hobbes both have helped us to get knowledge about political physiology. In order to differentiate between the concepts given by Machiavelli and Hobbes we have to view the methods used by them in their work. Hobbes was a well-known scholar of his time and put forward his political views into scientific forms. According to him if we examine politics from the perspective of science then we can reach to a conclusion and can create a peaceful state. In his book In de Corpore, he presented his views on mathematics, geometry, human nature and physics. He also presented the principles of political science in his book whereas Machiavelli found out how people behave or act in the world. He analyzed the behavior and actions of people and concluded the human nature. He wrote a book named Prince which was written during the Italian war, in which he found out about the selfish behavior of human being. He said that people behave in good manner when it is for their own
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John Locke’s political philosophy spans a wide range of insights and perspectives, perhaps the most central notion is his concept of natural law. Locke’s notion of natural law involves a complex number of elements. While Locke formulated the concept of natural law within a newly imagined perspective, the concept itself has a long precedent in philosophy.
Of course, each political and financial system is based on a relative theory that produces ideology in all terms. Since 1789 with French Revolution, and until say 1989, with the chute of Communism in the Eastern bloc countries, there has been too many change in Europe mainly after Middle Ages and chute of feudalism.
The Communist Manifesto has been seen by some modern thinkers are a “landmark text coalescing the era’s vision for social change” (Krieger & Birn, 1998, p. 1698). Of course, the work is not roundly accepted, and seems to have been defeated in much of the world.
To my mind, protection of its citizens is the crucial ethical role that has to be performed by any State or Government. Further on in this essay, the main positions of the abovementioned philosophers are summarized and a personal position on the role of government is provided.
It entails the control of a republic or a state where the selection of the republic leader is by any other means apart from through heredity. Republicanism is popular among numerous individuals in the political discourses as the absence of a monarchy. In a republic, the people elect the leaders in charge of the government.
In his time and concerning his immediate history, the great thinker Aristotle believed political thought was frustratingly struggling between two ideological entities and so he proposed a conjoined fetus, named polity. Its parents were democracy and oligarchy, and Aristotle was God giving birth to the new thought from the best parts of both and without the worst parts of either.
On the theoretical front, there are many proposals and underlying rationales for structuring the government in a variety of ways. As early as the seventeenth century, nearly a century before the French Revolution, the British political philosopher John
This includes its defining characteristics, its substance, and the conditions under which it arises. Samuel Huntington (1957, p. 164) defined ideology as a system of ideas concerned with the distribution of political and social values and complied by