The weakening of affirmative action was a result of unfavorable rulings by the federal court and hostile Republican legislators. ‘Colorblind’ activists who organized campaigns against affirmative action further…
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Various executive officials curtailed the enforcement of racial equality. Various government agencies, universities and corporations curtailed racial diversity. During this period, affirmative action grew stronger and more resilient. Affirmative action was shaped by a combination of normative and coercive factors within academic institutions. Universities emphasized the need for racial diversity and equality within their institutions. Civil rights activists and diversity professionals have contributed heavily to the creation and implementation of frameworks that courts later implemented. The growth of affirmative action was countered by the rise in racial conservatism. The achievement of civil rights movements led to the institutionalization of equality in large organizations. Most universities began to implement affirmative action policies voluntarily in order to create racial equality and counter social segregation. Post-secondary education treats white, black and Hispanic students differently, leading to racial inequality within institutions and the wastage of talent (Lipson, 2014).
Scholars have developed theories to explain policy development over the years. Coercive isomorphism emphasizes the influence of external interests on the operations of some institutions. The approach defines bureaucratic institutions as easily influenced by organized interest groups. Another approach emphasizes the influence of law and envisions institutions as complying with legal reforms and judicial decisions. The structure of political institutions and historical contingent political processes has a crucial role in shaping policy development. Another approach states that policy development can be attributed to both voluntary and coerced approaches. The neoinstitutional theory emphasizes the need to evolve organizational policies and practices in order to apply
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There are many underrepresented groups or minorities from the past and at present, consisting of people belonging to ethnic minorities, women and other related groups. These people have become off limited to some opportunities available only to chosen popular groups.Affirmative action programs today are giving these minorities or underrepresented groups just like the women into various opportunities that were not made available to them from the past.
For centuries, women always had special roles in individual and corporate lives of people. They have been considered very important in the propagation of the human species and this is perhaps the reason why they were always seen as sexual objects by their male counterparts rather than people of the same level, having the same rights, physical, psychological and emotional needs.
This paper seeks to investigate whether or not affirmative action is still warranted in 2012, especially with respect to women and minority groups, and the extent to which they can access prime or high-paying employment opportunities in the United States. The central argument of this paper is that while it is true that there have been significant strides in the direction of equality, the present state of things have not managed to completely overturn decades of historical discrepancies in the way that males and females were being treated.
Affirmative action of law is a procedure of a government or a business or any institutional in which it gives extraordinary right of employing or progression to ethnic minorities to structure for the ancient times inequity towards the minority. The affirmative action by law had been a subject of debate.
Although not one amongst the discriminated, the issue appeals me because of economic and social wide effects of the decisions taken by the Supreme Court in favor and against some policy matters on discrimination and reverse discrimination (Encyclopedia, Affirmative Action).
Particularly in the workplace, discrimination has affected hiring and promotion. Data have shown that compared with their male counterparts, promotion of similarly qualified women is 50 % slower than that of the former; in the US, although
For females and minority employees, affirmative action proposes great opportunities to be equally treated and protected (to some extent). Nevertheless, there are some disadvantages of these policies. They include low-qualifies fork force and low-personal achievements of
Affirmative action programs forced many corporations to change their hiring practices to get away from the discriminatory mindset of the past. Thousands of corporations in America were able to successfully implement
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