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Georg Wilhem Friedrich Hegel in his philosophy of world history expounds on the different types of history. The first is original history, which refers to the written historical account of the period in question (Hegel, Wood & Nisbet 1991). Reflective history is the second type, which is written after a certain period, based on the reflective thought and is laden with interpretation. Lastly, there is philosophic history, which tries to rationally interpret history. Through philosophic history, Hegel observes that world history is not guided by God’s plan rather it is through a rational process (Hegel, Wood & Nisbet, 1991). He expounds this in his Reason rules of history, which states that reason rules the world. Hegel’s philosophical history is based on that assumption; reason rules the world.
Friedrich Nietzsche in his philosophy of history tries to explain, “how things become what they are”. His concern with history arises with its recording and emphasis by people who claim to represent the past. He opposes Hegel’s method of systemizing history and his adoption of teological themes (Mencken, 1993). In his opinion, history should be wholesome for future generations and its sole purpose is to influence the next generations. This purpose is not a choice rather it is a demand. Nietzsche is of the opinion that “the capacity to build a new future depends on our ability to see a fundamental continuity with the strengths of the past”.
Kant’s moral theory states that freedom is not defined by the absence of law but being bound to laws one makes for himself (Höffe, 1994). His moral theory further states that rational human wills have freedom, that is they are autonomous. Freedom, according to Kant is autonomy where individuals lay their own laws that guide their actions. His view on individual freedom as being autonomous is derived from the
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This is an ethics issue. First we have to define how these three philosophers look at ethics and morals. The three of them have different views on ethics, especially metaethics. For Nietzsche, moral values are arbitrary; while for Kant and Mill, morals are innate.
Modern philosophy is philosophy done during the "modern" era of Europe and North America. The modern period runs roughly from the beginning of the seventeenth century until the present. There are two major figures of philosophy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries namely: Rationalist and Empiricist.
This notion of Kant has come under scathing criticism from academics and philosophers alike. For example utilitarian philosophers, like David Hume, are of the view that moral standards should comply with the concept of utility.
two thinkers share a common initial emphasis in the philosophies of liberty and democracy that assumed on the task of identifying the modern period in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Together with Hegel they pursue to reveal the processes establish in action by human
edy is first defined by the self – suffering man and the tendencies that characters have in regard to their actions and the responses that they take. Through this definition, there is a specific response that can be taken by the characters, all which leads to the end
theorists’ standpoints on natural science in relative to their moral thinking, offers two diverse notions of the discrete sovereignty and free will. This will help us establish the difference between the two dissimilar types of communal structures that they appear to