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Phobias and addictions - Assignment Example

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There are many theoretical findings on these phenomena, and the most widely referred ones are classical and operant conditioning…
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Download file to see previous pages , the conditioned stimulus makes a pair with the unconditioned one through the learned association process, “and a conditioned behavioral response will then occur when the paired unconditioned stimuli is presented alone.” (Baldwin, 2015, 1). Conditioned stimulus in this regard is the stimulus which needs no learning by the individual, and the unconditioned stimulus comprises the things related to the frightening situation – sounds, objects, visible things etc. When these two types of stimuli formulate an association, the phobia develops. (Ricker, 2015).
The term ‘addiction’ defines phenomenon of a learned behavior which has been formed as a consequence of reward, enjoyment or pleasure receiving from the activity. The theory of operant conditioning states that the behavior which is rewarded tends to increase, and the point of concern is that some stimuli, including some activities and substances, are giving reward immediately. Human beings and animals, as per the research findings, learn the immediately rewarded behavior much faster which often results into the rewarded activity replacement any other activities and becoming the most time-consuming one. Any addiction may progress, which often happens in reality, and the other sources of reward become less important and unnecessary at all. (Horvath et al., 2015).
As it has been already mentioned above, classical and operant conditioning theories are the two major ones dealing with the explanation of such emotional difficulties as phobias and addictions. These theories have significant differences from one another which will be given below.
Classical conditioning theory places neutral signals before obtaining any reflex. This theory also emphasizes on automatic and involuntary behavior type. Classical conditioning explains that the response to the stimulus is received by means of a neutral stimulus and an unconditional one pairing, and the latter triggers behavior which shall be learned making it ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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