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Knowledge and Scientific Methods - Research Paper Example

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In this paper, I am going to put much emphasis on six principles of this kind of thinking. The first principle is: Ruling out rival hypothesis. Many psychological findings heard on the…
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Knowledge and Scientific Methods
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Download file to see previous pages Whenever we are faced with an evaluation of a certain claim, we ought to ask ourselves whether we have excluded other explanations for it.
The second scientific thinking is: correlation isn’t causation. Many psychology students make a common mistake during the interpretation of studies and they come up with a conclusion that when two things are compared with each other, one thing must cause the other. When one concludes that correlation means causation, he/she commits the correlation-causation fallacy. This is a fallacy because the claim that two variables are correlated does not mean that one is a cause for the other. It is good for us to note that a correlation between two things does not indicate a causal connection between them.
The third principle is: Falsifiability. One philosopher made an observation that for a claim to have meaning, it has to be falsifiable. However, some students fail to distinguish a falsifiable theory from a false theory. The principle of falsifiability does not state that a theory has to be false for it to be falsifiable. Nevertheless, the principle means that a meaningful theory could be proven wrong if certain types of evidence against the theory exist. A good scientific theory must predict predicts only certain outcomes, but not others. When evaluating a psychological claim, we ought to ask ourselves whether a certain principle can be disapproved or whether it is consistent with the available body of evidence.
The fourth scientific thinking principle is: Replicability. Replicability is the consistent duplication of the findings of certain studies. If the findings cannot be duplicated, the odds that the original findings were due to chance increase. Over the past years, psychologists have become aware of the importance of replication. Most replications aren’t exact duplications of the originals researcher’s methods. Discoveries have been made that the media are likely to report initial positive findings than ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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