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It relied heavily on the process of introspection and its goal was to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and determine how these elements worked together to form ideas (Millis, 2003). The basic assumption of structuralism is that orderliness exists. Structuralism laid more emphasis on the use of scientific research. This school of thought provided psychology with a strong scientific identity in the academic community.
2. Functionalism: This school of thought was highly influenced by William James. It focused on analyzing the role of psychological or mental processes. The basic assumption of functionalism is that all mental processes help a person to adapt to their environment and that “consciousness exists because it serves a function” (Kowalski & Western, 2005).
3. Behaviorism: This school of thought was developed by psychologists like Pavlov and Skinner. It focused on observable behaviors that can be studied in an accurate and organized manner (Millis, 2003). The goal of behaviorism is the prediction and control of behavior. It did not emphasize the internal mental conditions and states of the individual. It is based on the assumption that all behaviors can be acquired through conditioning by interacting with the environment (Millis, 2003).
4. Psychoanalysis: This school of thought was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud and focused on the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior (Millis, 2003). It was rejected by many as a true science. It is based on the assumptions like unconscious mental processes exist and all human behaviors are motivated and purposeful. It also assumes that past experiences influence current changes and reactions. This suggests that personality functions of the human mind can be understood through id, ego and superego (Millis, 2003). Psychoanalysis also assumes that human behavior is influenced by environmental interactions.
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This paper reviews the alliance of Behaviorism and the State, represented by Skinner in America and Pavlov in USSR, as indicative of “war psychologies” and contrast this with “peace psychologies” such as the Humanistic, Gestalt, and Transpersonal schools of the 1960’s that were involved with anti-war movements of the Vietnam era.
In addition, he addressed comprehensive ideas on several aspects of psychology. While most of his concepts are reflected in several researches, the field of psychology does not acknowledge his contributions. Few individuals, beside the proponents of Adlerian theory support his work.
Sports psychology mainly encompasses the psychological foundations, processes and results of monitoring psychological tendency of sportspersons comprising behaviors related to emotional and motivational well being of individuals. Even though, psychological training remains as an integral part of an athlete’s holistic training process amongst other training elements, the coaches face challenges in determining strategies of understanding stress, self-efficacy, information-motivational-behavioral, psycho dynamic and developmental approaches of the sportspersons.
These theories have been used to explain the difference in gender performance in adult learning. They have helped explain gender gaps in performances especially in mathematics and science subjects that is; boys perform better in these subjects than girls.
Entwistle writes in his book Integrative Approaches Psychology and Christianity: An Introduction to Worldview Issues, Philosophical Foundations, and Models of Integratio, he doesn’t just write, he elaborates and clears confusion for those who are in conflict with religion (Christianity in particular) and for those who are searching for the truth, in an attempt to integrate religion and psychology.
Psychology emerged from philosophy and it developed rapidly as an academic discipline. Over the past 150 years, it has spread widely in the American colleges and universities. The coverage of the psychology curriculum as designed by Rutgers is of interest to the academic overview and thus academic psychology evolved in America.
For instance, according to the research children especially gifted in mathematics had additional physical peculiarities, such as left-handedness or common allergic reactions. It was revealed that these poorly
The essay can also assist pastors, counselors, psychologists and others in mentoring and also provides a roadmap for the readers to understand and appreciate Christian values and approaches. The paper offers a variety of practical applications and theoretical insights and is a mentor to many readers.
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