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He has noticed a recurrent morning cough and increased production of mucus over the past 2 months or so.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstructive lung diseases that is characterised by inadequate airflow which is chronic in nature. The disease arises when the bronchi are scarred and inflamed as well as the damages of the alveoli. This process occurs after several years and is usually caused by cigarette smoking. In essence, several scholars incorporated emphysema and bronchitis in defining COPD. Bronchitis is defined as presence of chronic productive cough for a period of 3 months in 2 consecutive years. While emphysema is an abnormal enlargement of the air spaces that are distal to the terminal bronchi with obvious destruction of the bronchiole walls (Decramer, Janssens, & Miravitlles, 2012).
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD accounting for 80%-95%; however, some factors have also been associated with the disease and they include air pollution like in poorly ventilated cooking places. Occupational exposure to irritants such as dust, fumes and other chemicals, which are found in textile industries, gold mines among others. Genetics have been noted to have a major role in the development of COPD, whereby those individuals who lack alpha 1-antitrypsin are likely to develop COPD (Barnes, 2014).
Shortness of breath: This is the most worrying symptom to most people with the disease; occasionally patients complain that they cannot inhale enough air. This symptoms is usually worsened by exertion, however in the advanced stage of COPD it can occur during rest.
The pathological changes in COPD usually occur in the lung parenchyma, the bronchi as well as the bronchioles. Several causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease occur due to exposure to the noxious substances or stimuli such as cigarette smoke. The Pathophysiology is not very clear and is most likely to be diverse. However, elevated numbers of activated
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Schickler’s are indeed explicit and built-in with the story, almost indiscernible to plain eyes, but perceivable only by remote contemplation. His purported theme essentially rings one’s heart immediately once he or she finishes reading the story. At a first glance, one will be provoked to take it for a story of romance with a happy ending.
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