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As more red blood cells pass through the tissue, warmth (calor) sets in. Increase in vascular permeability results in fluid to shifting into the connective tissue that causes edema.
Vasodilation and thickening of blood encourages leucocytes to stick to blood vessels. Margi nation occurs and leucocytes crawl between the endothelial cells and enter the inflamed tissues. Phagocytosis occurs, microbes are engulfed and destroyed by white blood cells and lastly tissue repair begins (Lydyard & Whelan, 2011).An example when a malaria protozoan enters the body through mosquito bite, the body’s immune becomes active, there is increase in white blood cell circulation. An individual presents with pain and fever. Edema might set in later phase.
Inflammation can be classified according to exudate, period, site, and etiology. Based on exudate, inflammations result in fluid accumulation in the tissues. These inflammations can be suppurative inflammation where pus forms resulting into a skin abscess, serous where thin watery exudate forms. An example is blister. In etiology, inflammation can be either aseptic or septic. Aseptic are chemical substance radiations while septic are living organisms that result into inflammation. Based on location, inflammation occurs in different regions of the body depending on the causative agent, for example, tuberculosis causes inflammation of the lungs. Duration depends on the type of hypersensitivity (Lydyard & Whelan, 2011). Type I like insect bites take shorter period to manifest than Type IV where graft transplanting takes 3 days to manifest.
The immune system provides three lines of defenses. The first line of defense is made up of nonspecific barriers. This includes chemical and physical barriers that prevent foreign agents from penetrating the outer layer of the body. These barriers are the skin, the mucous membrane, hair, tears, sweat saliva, gastric secretions, and cerumen. The second line of defense consists of leucocytes.
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