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Research has shown that the key in addiction development is neurophysiologic strengthening (Van den Oever, Spijker, & Smit, 2012). It has been discovered that neurophysiologic reinforcement uses a pathway comprised of dopaminergic neurons arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and moving on to the forebrain (Piazza & Deroche-Gamonet, 2013). Events leading to drug addiction are made up of severe effects at particulate action sites of the abused substance. The action sites normally trigger the neural connections linked with neurophysiologic reinforcement. The pathway followed by these circuits reacts with glutamatergic projections stemming from parts of the brain like the cerebral cortex. As a result, the pathway controls response to sex, food and other natural stimulants. Studies show that the pathway that has long been suggested to cause neurophysiologic reinforcement is called the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Various abused substances are indirectly or directly implicated in the promotion of dopamine extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens. Cannabinoid receptors located in the striatum are presynaptically localized in two nerve terminals, the glutamatergic and the GABAergic. They are also localized postsynaptically in the spines and the dendritic shafts of the GABAergic, dynorphinergic, and enkephlinergic efferent neurons (Justinova, Panlilio, & Goldberg, 2009).
Justinova, Panlilio, and Goldberg (2009) note that depolarization of these cells leads to the production of endocannabinoids in the VTA and the nucleus accumbumens. In these locations, they influence the inhibitory and the excitatory inputs that regulate the dopaminergic neurons of the mesocorticolimbic system. They do so by functioning as retrograde messengers in cannabinoid receptors. The produced endocannabinoids also constitute synaptic plasticity found in the mesolimbic pathway (Kalivas & OBrien, 2008). Further research has shown that the endocannabinoid system is
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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Eating disorders: Binge eating disorder (BED). Obesity is often considered a matter of character rather than a matter of health. According to Haddock (2000), “Obesity is often taken as a sign of personal failing…Even though about one-third of the population is overweight, and the causes of obesity are clearly not associated with personal character, the stigma against the obese remains” (p.
Second, there is the school of thought that describes drug abuse as a type of self-fulfilling prophecy with relation to the way people understand and categorize it. What one can see from this debate, prior to seeking to develop their own point of view with relation to the issue, is that one viewpoint attempts to explain drug use by way of a mental/spiritual deficiency in terms of lack of willpower.
It should be noted that nobody chooses drug addiction and it’s only a result of simple drug use either for leisure or in an endeavor to belong to a certain group. This develops to recreational level and before the individual realizes, it reaches a level where the brain needs some level of the drug for emotional and mental stability (Silverstein & Silverstein, 1975).
Lack of understanding of customers, market dynamics, and technology limits organizations’ ability to make customer-focused decisions. It is impossible to maintain customer focus without proper comprehension of all
The author of the text highlights that relapse does not matter whether the individual has been sober for months, weeks or years in case a person returns to the use of substances that are held illegal and harmful to their health them they are referred to as relapse. To be precise, this situation occurs when an individual picks up their habits again.
Modern classification of the different episodes reveals that there are four predominant episodes in the mood pattern of patients with Bipolar disorder. These four episodes include mania, ipomania, depression, and mixed