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The L. Monocytogenes has a lower pathogenic potential than other food borne pathogens. Therefore, the number of pathogens ingested through foods is still low. It is however inconsistent with the relatively high 50% lethal dose (LD50) (Lee 98). Therefore, the minimum dose required for causing clinical infection in the humans is yet to be determined but the large numbers of the L. Monocytogenes bacteria detected in the foods responsible for sporadic and epidemic listeriosis cases suggests it is still high
The vibrio cholera, the cholera agent, is a normal inhabitant of the aquatic environment. It survives under a wide range of salinity and pH. The effect of selected environmental parameters can be identified through chemically defined solutions. From such conditions, the growth and activity of the vibrio cholera are seen as being affected and influenced by the low pH. The low pH was responsible for the reduced effectiveness and growth of the vibrio cholera bacteria. This condition of the pH altered the internal process of the bacteria causing it to slow down and reproduce slowly. Low pH contained less Na+ that was relevant for the growth of the bacteria. Hence, the vibrio cholera bacteria were bound to be minimal in number. From a past study by (Vimont, 1-4), vibrio cholera can be cultured for a period of 4days using and estuarine salinity of 25%. Salinity of the bacteria’s niche influenced the activity as measured through the uptake of 14C –amino acids. From the study of selected ions, it was evident that the activity and growth of the cholera were affected by pH.
The LD50 is the dose at which a drug becomes lethal for 50% of the target population. It is expressed as the mass of the bacteria administered per mass of the target. Different bacteria types impact on the host differently. The lethal dose for particular bacteria can change over time due to various factors. This can be affected by the toxicity and the amount of the bacteria cells. As the
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While making casual conversations, I also slipped in some questions on what the learner felt were her learning needs. When the learner would open up about these learning needs, I then asked her some other questions in relation to these needs. Q-1b. Comment on whether this was a reliable and valid assessment; explain reasons for your answer.
(Solomon, 'In the Beginning was the Word, p. 7) Solomon’s emphasis is on the sexual nature of affection as related to intimate love, most commonly referring to heterosexual sex. During the early stages of human civilization, fidelity was a major issue that remained at the focal point of the relationship between a man and a woman.
During the play stage, individuals take on the roles of those they view as essential to them. Mead identifies game stage as the third stage in the development. A person attains this stage when they gain enough awareness on the society’s definition of roles (Rosenberg and Ralph 150).
Answer essay questions in your own words. Focus on keywords. A word limit for answering each essay question is indicated. Do not go over the maximum number or words specified. Multiple choice questions require calculations, using equations, in order to solve.
Difficulty arises, however, when deciding how to assess the educational achievement of students (Janesick 2001). There are numerous types of exams and questions which can be utilized and tailored for this goal, and the obscurity comes in deciding which is appropriate for a given situation (Khattri et al.
breach and the claimant's loss. In addition, the claimant must show that the loss was foreseeable or not too remote. Further, the claimant is required to show with reasonable certainty the amount of the damage. Many civil law countries also require, as a prerequisite to an award of damages for breach of contract, that the respondent be at fault in breaching the agreement.
n the book of Mark chapter 10, Jesus said it is not easy for the rich to enter this Kingdom because they fail to become righteous by failing to abandon their sinful life simply after looking the materialistic possession they have acquired (Fischer &Hart, 1995).
This is attention to general public’s welfare whereby the entire society has a stake in terms of recognition, promotion and security. Mainly, the state’s regime via its varied agencies or authorities usually claims this responsibility with
Interventions are explicitly established for all these with the objective of decreasing the possibility of educational or societal letdown. Such intercessions can be communicative and or educational intercessions integrating scientifically recognized
Low Ph results in acidic environment around the bacteria. They are able to survive the conditions through thickening their outer covering (Linde, p 45). The lethal dose administered kills the bacteria by raising the ph, which makes them suck in too much liquid
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