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Prior to the management of unstable angina it is crucial to diagnose the problem. Unstable angina can be diagnosed by means of clinical presentation of patient and by the measurement of certain biochemical markers. Cardiac troponin and myoglobin are valid diagnostic markers (Kumar and Clark, 2012).
The main tool used in diagnosis of unstable angina is the clinical presentation of the patient. The patients complain of chest pain, chest pain may occur at rest or while exertion. The patient feels chest pain which radiates to the shoulder, arm, jaw, neck or the back. A feeling of discomfort might be felt by patient, and they might describe it like tightness in the chest. Dyspnea and sweating are also the possible symptoms of unstable angina (Kumar and Clark, 2012). On physical examination the patient is usually normal. Elder patients and women present with rare symptoms such as weakness, nausea, lightheadedness and diaphoresis (Sami et al, 2010).
Electrocardiography plays a vital role is assessing unstable angina. It is a good prognostic tool for physicians to make decisions for patients who are at high risk for coronary syndromes. The 12 lead electrocardiogram is used for the diagnosis. For instance if a patient with symptoms of angina comes to the ER, physicians should do an ECG as soon as possible to rule out the underlying problem. In unstable angina the findings on an electrocardiogram include ST-segment depression, brief ST-segment elevation and inversion of T-wave. The ST-segment elevation in two continuous leads as a confirmation for acute myocardial infarction (Kumar and Cannon, 2009).
Measurement of cardiac biomarkers is done in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The cardiac troponins are highly specific and sensitive in marking myocardial injury. Cardiac troponins have taken over CK-MB. The major disadvantage in using cardiac troponin is that it starts to rise in the patient after about 6 hours of the appearance of the symptoms (Kumar and
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The author explains that angina pectoris is a symptom defined by the patient in his own words. This condition can often cause changes like ST depression on EKG strip but very often angina pectoris can occur without any changes on the ECG strip. Methods for confirmation of angina pectoris are often unavailable in pre-hospital settings.
The best strategy to employ is to empower the practitioners caring for the patients with the recommended knowledge, competence, and skills in order to recognize and effectively manage them. Acute illness courses offer most healthcare practitioners with various experiences that assist in promoting opportunities for the learning students to improve their skills and knowledge in caring for the vulnerable patients.
1. What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component.
The physical examination for prostate cancer has two main components, namely Digital Rectal examination (DRE) and measuring blood levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). Digital Rectal examination is undertaken as a part of annual examination to directly palpate the prostate and check for abnormal texture and presence of lumps.
This paper will study the case of Tabitha and determine the rights of the client based on Kerridge, Lowe, and McPhee (2005) Model for Ethical Decision Making. In addition, this case study will discuss the ethics and legality of minor patients in terms of the decision to receive or refuse treatment, as well as the capacity of the parents to give consent.
Usually, the discomfort usually spreads to the sub-sternum area (Siegenthaler 222). In line with this, it is important to point out that the attack by angina usually occurs when a person is undergoing stressful conditions with a rest playing an instrumental role in relieving the person of the pain.
3-9; Crea & Gaspardone 3767).
At present angina pectoris is generally used to include conditions such as myocardial ischaemia, esophagus, lung or chest wall disorders. An extensive description for angina pectoris includes discomfort in the jaw, shoulder, upper limbs and back.
It can also radiate to the epigastrium, back, neck, jaw, or shoulders. The discomfort can be precipitated by physical exertion, eating, exposure to cold, or emotional stress (Alaeddini, 2006). It lasts for about 1 to 5 minutes and is typically relieved by
nt through a bout of severe nose bleeding (epistaxis) with dizziness and registered pathophysiological signs of abnormalities on heart pump and blood vessel functions causing him a 180/110 reading in blood pressure.
Based on the case description, the patient encountered
(Dugdale, 2012). Some of the other names given to Unstable Angina include: “Accelerating angina; New-onset angina; Angina - unstable; Progressive angina” (Dugdale, Unstable angina, 2014)
Unstable angina does not follow any patterns. It may happen more frequently
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