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Monotherapy with Metformin is effective in controlling the blood glucose levels in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM), however, it can also be used in conjunction with other oral hypoglycaemic drugs such as sulfonylureas and are effective in eliminating the use of insulin therapy (Dunn & Peters, 1995). Metformin is highly recommended in NIDDM patients because of its good glycaemic control, therefore it is crucial to understand its pharmacodynamics, adverse effects, contraindications, drug interactions, dosage and basic patient education for an effective prescription.
The major action of metformin is decreasing the hepatic production of glucose and also reduces the intestinal absorption of glucose after meals. The better aspect about metformin is that it does not stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreatic beta cells, like the sulfonylureas. This removes any risk of causing hypoglycaemia in the NIDDM patients. Metformin has proved to reduce the HbA1c levels by 1% to 2% (Tindal, Sedrak, & Boltri, 2014). Metformin also increases the peripheral glucose uptake and increases the insulin sensitivity of tissue to insulin. These effects are helpful in improving glucose tolerance and also reduce the basal and the post-prandial levels of blood glucose. Metformin has also shown through clinical studies that it reduces the plasma lipid levels through its action on liver. It lowers total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, low-density lipids and increases high-density lipids. It is also effective in reducing platelet aggregation and makes the blood less viscous (Wynee, Woo, & Millard, 2002).
Metformin is used in the treatment of NIDDM as a monotherapy or in combination with other oral hypoglycemic drugs. It is especially of importance in obese patients who cannot use sulfonylureas, because metformin does not cause weight gain and also reduces plasma lipids (Wynee, Woo, & Millard, 2002). Metformin has shown in studies that if it is used in
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354). The problem with such ideal is that no human being is perfect, and at some point, they may manifest vulnerability that account for errors. The solution can be gained from technological advances, where nurses are aided by technological equipments created for specific nursing functions, as in medication pump technology, “electronic medical records, computerized prescription order entry, bar coding systems” (Rosenkoetter, Bowcutt, Khasanshina, Chernecky, & Wall, 2008, p.
It is therefore essential that they are properly trained in the diagnosis of diabetes and are knowledgeable about the identification of predisposing factors for diabetes. A simulation based training module can assist in overcoming this situation. Introduction Monitoring of blood sugar (glucose) is an important aspect in the life of a diabetic patient, maybe suffering from Type I or type II Diabetes.
These include illegibly written prescriptions, dispensing errors, calculation errors, etc. Among the above cited errors, some of the errors are considered to be most crucial and they have considerable impact on the patients, for example, the monitoring errors and the administering errors.
The two key types of diabetes are Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While type 1 diabetes normally occurs in children and adolescents, thus requiring lifelong insulin injections for management and survival, the type 2 diabetes mostly attacks adults and is often related to obesity, unhealthy eating habits/diets, and inactivity.
A high degree of blood sugar can lead to problems in different organs of the individual (National Kidney Foundation, 2007, p.4). It is a form of a chronic disease arising from the absolute or relative reduction in the insulin level of a person. It became possible to treat all forms of diabetes since the development of insulin in the year 1921, and the common form i.e.
Lambert, Laurel A. Copeland, Nancy Sampson, and Sonia A. Duffy Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 30 (2006) 919–923 Statement of the Problem: The authors state that the issue regarding atypical antipsychotics and metabolic disease has been previously clarified, it has only been in a general way.
The author explains that nurses are prone to commit an error in medicine administration, especially during the process of transcribing and administering. Nurses are usually assigned to copy the doctor’s prescription for the handing out of the correct dosage.
The term ‘drug safety’ is used when it comes to evaluation of the correct prescription of medicine, as well as administration and dispensation of the same. Medication safety, on the other hand, revolves around errors that occur in the process of prescription, dispensation as well as at the level of administration.
This paper investigates one problem that practitioners encounter in the nursing profession.
One of the main duties that nurses have is administering of medication to patients, which is a pretty complex and multistep process. Administering of medication entails things such
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