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These include variable ratio, fixed ratio, variable interval and fixed interval. For fixed ratio, reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses, while in variable ratio, the average number of responses may be pre-determined, but may not be followed on individual reinforcements. For fixed interval, reinforcement comes after a fixed period of time, while in variable interval, the average time is fixed but not necessarily followed on each individual reinforcement.
Operant principles can be used to bring about more appropriate behavior. These principles can be used to define the development of behaviors that operate upon the environment in order to bring about behavioral consequences in such an environment. Operant principles lead to learning which occurs when an appropriate response is demonstrated following the occurrence of a particular behavior. Thus, learning more appropriate behavior is seen to occur when there has been a noticeable change in the behavior after the delivery of the relevant instructions to a learner.
The principles of reinforcement and punishment involve positive punishment, positive reinforcement and operant conditioning. Punishment is usually applied in order to reduce the incidence of an undesirable behavior. In the concept of positive punishment, the term ‘positive’ might be confusing to some people, due to the fact that in common terms ‘positive’ means when something is good, or pleasant, or upbeat, or rewarding. The positive here is a technical terminology though, so it is meant as ‘started’ or ‘added’. It should be noted too that in this situation, it is not the individual that is being punished, but the behavior that is being tackled, in an attempt to be reduce or eliminate it.
Positive Reinforcement is one of the easiest and most effective control tools. It involves the addition or starting of
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Phobia is a minor psychological disorder which can become chronic if not cared, managed or treated properly. On the other hand, addiction can be defined as the physical or psychological dependence of certain substances like alcohol, narcotic drugs, tobacco products etc.
This essay functions by considering one such aspect of behavior and proposing a solution to it based on Skinner’s operant conditioning methods. The specific behavior in question involves my cat, Chester.
Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with dogs utilized a ringing bell as the neutral stimulus, meat as an unconditioned stimulus along with salivation of the dog as the unconditioned response (Feldman). The unconditioned stimulus (meat) tends to produce the unconditioned response (salivation of the dog) which is the natural reaction to the provided stimulus.
If a neutral stimulus is paired to an unconditioned stimulus to solicit an unconditioned response, it is possible to condition the neutral stimulus to produce the same response without the unconditioned stimulus being present. Pavlov utilized meat in order to induce salivation in the dogs he was experimenting with.
He was studying the process of transformation of the conscious mind to the science of behavior. The instrumental learning of Thordike is termed as “operant conditioning” where the individuals accustomed with new responses in align with that “operate on” the environment.
Skinner came up with his theory of operant conditioning inspired by the work of Edward Thorndike, particularly Thorndike’s work regarding the learning behavior of animals with the aid of the puzzle box and resultant theory of 'Law of Effect'. Basing on Thorndike’s work, Skinner did some experiments with animals using a similar box to Thorndike’s puzzle box called Operant Conditioning chamber, which came to be known as Skinner’s box.
The process of learning to meet the demands of the environment is called conditioning. Conditioning is basically of two types i.e., Respondent Conditioning and Operant Conditioning.
According to Pierce and Cheney "Respondent conditioning occurs when a neutral or meaningless stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus" example being salivation of dog when food is placed at its mouth.
He provided the dogs with food, and monitored their salivary response and then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. He noticed that the dogs would begin to salivate on seeing his assistant carrying food pans even before he presented the