Nevertheless, efficiency of its application in patient care still needs to be continuously evaluated and monitored. Thus, review of relevant studies and previous researches are presented in this paper to create a collaborated idea of pain management in post-cardiac surgery patients, its application in nursing care, and suggested strategies to improve future nursing care practice.
There are various sources of pain: nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In nociceptive pain, the nervous system is working well and the body tells the brain that there is a source of pain, such as an injury or a cut; in neuropathic pain, the nervous system is not working properly because there may be no apparent source of pain, but the body is still telling the brain that an injury is present.
Management of pain following a surgical procedure is one of the major challenges and source of concern for health care providers. However, surveys have revealed that hospital postoperative pain management, such as opioid intramuscular injections are frequently inefficient, resulting in unrelieved pain in approximately 50% of patients
The word pain has been utilized to explain many conditions. There are two types of pain: acute pain is generally any relatively short duration pain with known organic cause and chronic pain is deep, long-lasting, intractable pain (Holdcroft & Jaggar, 2005; Shorten et al., 2006).
The author uses the Roy Adaptation Model to deduce the adaptation to chronic pain model utilized in the theory of Karen Dunn. This theory provides the coping process starts by identifying the causal stimuli and managing it effectively. Dunn’s theory was developed through induction, which is starting with observation and working towards generalization.
However, behavioral approaches to pain have brought significant observations in the examining acute and chronic pain. Therefore, writing about pain and its relationship with behaviorism is necessitated by the urgency to trace how chronic pain affects a person.
Back has been found to be the second most common pain location in the human body and thus LBP has a considerably high prevalence (BenDebba, et al., 2002). This problem is important from the public heath perspective as it affects a considerable proportion of the population and carries with it numerous direct and indirect costs.
herapeutic touch, and holistic therapies being among the nursing theorizations utilized in deciphering ways in which to correctly alleviate and manage the level of pain of the elderly patient. This research focuses on this area and discusses various ways in which pain is