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gathering scientific knowledge but also with establishing institutions for the production of scientific knowledge free inherently from ideological biases. The technological dimension of science has been apparent in how science has bred and has interlinked with technology for economic uses and benefits.
These dimensions were also temporally successive in that Western science was borne out of philosophical study which emphasized the requirement of empirical investigation and rationalization. Science in its nascent stages was more on shaping its characteristically Western attitude of objectification and reductionism; that is, scientific truths were either derived from viewing Nature as an object for man’s benefit or from the deconstructive analysis of knowledge. Subsequent philosophies of Western science shifted its focus from experimental results to experimental processes. Although Jamison did not point it out explicitly, one can infer that the institutionalization of science was borne out of the early scientific community’s shift from its study of the results of experimentation to the study of the process of experimentation. This segued into the production of knowledge by means of formulating hypothesis and carrying out the experimentation to verify and produce new knowledge. With science out in the open, its progress escalated and the production of knowledge led to new knowledge that can be of economic advantage; Western science has thus come to where it is now – a commodity.
Criticism has dogged Western science from the time of its inception and up to the present. Jamison (1994) narrowed down his analysis of the various criticisms to relevant issues pertaining to how the relativism between Western science and traditional knowledge apply to contemporary concerns. Jamison (1994) grouped the criticisms into three thematic categories: romantic critique, environmental critique, and feminist critique. The romantic critics claimed that Western science
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As science in the modern era has mostly evolved under the influence of western civilization, the western methods and applications of science gave rise to ideological and materialistic bias. Western science has been defined differently by various research scholars.
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Pointers help in creating complex data structures such as 'linked lists'.
C++ possess the facility of using local and global variables, due to which a C++ program has the right to declare every method and function outside or within a class, local variables are often declared and initialized in C++ rather than global ones.
Therefore, the main mission of quantitative research is to ensure validity and reliability of study results (Dingwall et al, 1998). Examples of quantitative methods widely used in the social sciences and business and management research are survey methods, formal methods (e.g.
Sociologists use three principal theoretical paradigms to come up with perspectives regarding events - the structural-functional paradigm, social-conflict paradigm and symbolic-interactive paradigm. Each of these directs the attention to questions about how society is organized and the explanation as to why certain patterns exist.
Vast reformation of health care systems that has been recently launched by many developed countries is a distinct characteristic of modern globalized world. This tendency is especially evident in the developed
Different generations have accessed health in different ways. Hence, interview with three different generation vis-à-vis grandfather; father and child has been quite revealing. The elderly people of grandfather’s age were more conscious