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It works in a way so that no one can deny that a rule is unjust because the rules are made when all members of the society agree to them.
John Locke, one of the greatest eighteenth century theorists, also put forward the idea of natural rights and property, which formed the basis for his social contract theory. However, this is opposed to the central idea of egalitarianism – all people have an equal right and claim on the resources of the society. The social contract theory negates this concept and relies solely on individual rights rather than communal rights. Also, some perceive this negatively and argue that Locke’s studies tend to be more conservative in nature compared to other theorists of the social contract theory and included only the males and the educated and propertied class of the society (Cohen, 1986).
Pollock (2006) explains that the Lockean ‘contract’ is one where individuals give up the freedom to aggress against others in return for their own safety. The government or any law-enforcing authority rests upon the principles of quid pro quo which means that we give the government the power to protect us, in full recognition of the fact that this power may be used against us. However, this ‘contract’ with the government comes with a set of principles. Locke rejects the notion of an unconditional duty of obedience: ‘For him the legitimacy of political authority depends upon the end for which it was instituted, namely, the preservation of the natural rights to life, liberty, and estate. If these rights are infringed, the trust between the community and the magistrate (government) is canceled, and the people have a right to appeal to heaven (revolution) to establish a new legislative body.’ (Gray, 1999). Therefore, Lockean version of the social contract theory allows the members of the society to initiate a revolution if the social contract’s
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The main points of the theory are correlated with the modern criminal justice system and private security issues. The basic principles of John Locke, such as the natural existence of rights among humans, their rights to freedom, liberty, and ethical obligations are discussed further on in detail.
Pre-Classical thinkers viewed society through a pessimistic lens. They believed that all humans innately were brutal, but the fear of a brutal death at the hands of another brash human being drove them to create a social contract to form a government with laws.
After the World War I, it gained independence, but again in the World War II, it was occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union. In 1982, the communist rule collapsed in Poland and it became a unitary state which is known as" Third Polish Republic". It became the member of NATO and the European Union in 1999 and 2004, respectively.
From his early childhood, Locke was inspired by the ideals of his Puritanical father. Locke was a keen observer and a fast learner and had a deep interest in exploring philosophical and Biblical questions.
From 1646 to 1652, Locke studied at the Westminster School in London.
Men possessed natural rights derived from natural law which was perceived only by the few who exercised their human reason.
John Locke believed that men were rational beings and could make use of natural law for their own good. But they needed the state to maintain peace and order, provide them with essential services, and settle their quarrels and conflicts.
More and more young teenagers are engaging in sexual activity without being aware of the risks. Some people think that sex education is a good thing to do because children are already sexually active and they need information to help safely