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Stem cells are responsible for tissue or organ formation during prenatal life, and also for further growth. They are also responsible for repairing and regeneration of internal body system. This internal replenishing system works continuously throughout our life span. These cells display important attributes, which distinguishes them from normal cells. The cell division of stem cell gives rise to new stem cell or turned into specialized cell with definite function such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. In vivo or in vitro stimuli activate these cells to acquire special functions by becoming part of tissue- or organ-specific cells. Stem cells in the gut and bone marrow are at continuous task to repair and replace injured or eroded tissues, and therefore they multiply regularly by a process of cell division. In the organs like the pancreas and the heart, they are generated under certain physiologic conditions (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics4.asp). The major breakthroughs in stem cell research will able to figure out clearly the development of an organism from a single cell. The most of the work is reported on two types of stem cells embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic stem cells. There is a recent introduction of genetically "reprogrammed" stem cell termed as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006. Stem cell therapy is administered through local delivery or systemic infusion, of autologous or allogeneic cells. This aids in restoring the viability or functioning of damaged and malfunctioned tissues (Lu, Zhang & Jin, 2009).
Non-embryonic stem cells are also called as ‘adult stem cells’. They are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body of animals and humans in differentiated tissue or organ after the embryonic growth. They are also termed as somatic stem cells which are responsible for building different specialized cell types. These cells play pivotal
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Stem cell research is controversial due to the debate surrounding the possible sources of stem cells - embryonic stem cells and adult stem cell. In this sense, the research will focus only on adult stems cells (ASC) and its potential. It asserts that ASC has to address the ethical issues surrounding it as it involves human subjects.
It is interesting to note that both adults and embryos have stem cells. However, the research of adult stem cells is not what has caused so much furor in the academic and socio-religious circles. The controversy is regarding embryonic stem cells and the research thereon.
These researches and advancements, however, raise a lot of questions and controversies when it comes to ethics and code of principles, be it on the social, religious or any other behalf. Especially during and after the Second World War, when a lot of research in the field of biology and medicine was required and was going on, people started paying attention to the research processes and were concerned on the ethical grounds about it and thus emerged the field of Bioethics.
The author discusses ethical and moral arguments of using embryonic stem cells. Arguments of groups or sectors opposing the use of embryonic stem cells revolve around the destruction of life because they consider the cell in the embryo as not just a simple cell but life itself or the beginning of a human being.
Science and technology has developed so much that in the recent years scientists hope to use these cells to develop new tissues, treatments and potentially even organs for transplanting into a patient. First and foremost argument made by the scientific community is that human stem cell research is said to promise new life changing treatments and possible cures for many devastating diseases and injuries, such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, burns and spinal cord injuries (Young 2-16).
Certain types of tumors called teratomas are extraordinarily adept at generating adult tissues, but unlike embryos, they do so without the benefit of an organizing principle or blueprint. Such tumors rapidly produce skin, bone, muscle, and even hair and teeth, all massed together in a chaotic lump of tissue.
l is a type of cell that has the ability to divide or multiply indefinitely in culture and become any one of more than 200 different types of tissue cells in the body, such as muscle cells, blood cells, nerve cells and even new teeth. In the recent researches scientists hope to
The tissue-particulate stem cells role is to re-grow cells lost cells. Stem cells have the potential to trans-separate into an array of non-hematopoietic types of cells according to Bilko, Fehse, and Ostertag (2007). Stem cells can also be utilised to
Consequently, when a stem cell divides, it has the capacity of becoming a different type cell. For example, it can became a brain cell, muscle cell or remain as a stem cell.
Stem cell is different from other cells in the
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