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Intellectual Disabilities and its categories - Essay Example

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Schizophrenia, a group of related disorders that takes no time to turn into disability, however if given proper concern in this stage, it is lesser probability that it would turn into a disability. These disorders are followed by hallucinations and delusions along with the positive and negative symptoms that lead to schizophrenia…
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Intellectual Disabilities and its categories
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Download file to see previous pages The outcome is severe personality disorder followed by lack of communicational skills. Such patients possess attitude problem like speech disorder, mental disorder and are often tended towards what we call as 'roller coaster of thoughts'.
However, the dilemma remains that this lifelong disease is responsible for conducting many suicidal behaviors, mood instabilities and frustration causing serious crime and is still not given that much attention as it supposed to be given.
Siever et al describes Schizotypal disability as a disorder, which shares common phenomenological, genetic, biologic, outcome, and treatment response characteristics with more severely ill chronic schizophrenic patients. (Siever & Davis) However, at the same time, they are freer from the multiple artifacts that potentially confound research in schizophrenia including the effects of long-term and usually ongoing medication treatment, multiple hospitalizations or institutionalization, and prolonged functional impairment secondary to chronic psychosis and social deterioration. (Siever & Davis)
Genetic Factors: Studies have shown that that if one person has schizophrenia, the chance for another person also sharing the disorder depends on the degree of genetic relatedness between them. For example if one twin has schizophrenia, the chance that the co-twin will also have schizophrenia is around 18% if they are non identical twins but 48% if they are identical twins as identical twins share 100% of their genes. (Rapee, 2001:22)

Neurotransmitters/ Disconnection Syndrome: The biological models of schizophrenia emphasize neurochemical dysregulation or anatomical changes in the brain. The most widely disseminated and thoroughly developed biological theories include the neurotransmitter model. (Beebe, 2003) The cause of Schizophrenia is followed by one of the most widely accepted theory named "Dopamine Theory". This hypothesis states that schizophrenia can be understood in cognitive terms, as a failure of functional integration within the brain. Functional integration refers to the interactions of functionally specialised systems (i.e., populations of neurons, cortical areas and sub-areas) that are required for adaptive sensorimotor integration, perceptual synthesis and cognition. (Friston, 2002)
According to this theory, most of the symptoms of schizophrenia are the result of having excessive levels of dopamine, especially in the mesolimbic pathways of the brain. (Carson & Sanislow, 1993) Several sources support this theory. First many of the drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia seem to work primarily by blocking certain dopamine receptors in the brain. Second certain drugs that have been found to increase levels of dopamine in the brain also produce symptoms that are very similar to those found in schizophrenia. An appropriate example is the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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