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It is worth making note of the fact that, this covers about ninety nine percent of technological developments in human prehistory...the period extends from hominines like australopithecines who lived about two and a half million years ago to the end of Pleistocene who lived about ten thousand years ago. It is this stage that preceded Mesolithic period.
There are so many events that necessitated human evolution namely; the desire to eat cooked food that, led to the invention of fire. The need to find more food that prompted mankind to procedurally better his tools both for hunting and cultivation. The need to protect them not only led to the development of weaponry but also made fire relevant for scaring wild animals (Lubbock, 2002).
The desire to acquire items that they did not produce necessitated the commencement of trade or commerce. The unpredictable climatic conditions led to the start up arithmetic to study the stars for hindsight on seasons, the study on weather and climate and arithmetic.
This period is distinct with the development of human technology. It began at about ten thousand and two hundred BC, in some parts of the Middle East and later on in other parts of the world. (ASPRO chronology) to between four thousand five hundred and two thousand BC
Traditionally regarded as the final part of the Stone Age, this period followed the end Holocene Epipaleolthic period underpinned by the commencement of agriculture which led to the Neleolithic revolution. This period ended with the wide spread of metal tools in the copper age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age (Toth & Schick, 2007). Neolithic period is termed as a progression of cultural, behavioral and cultural elements and transformations such as, man’s adoption of wild fruits and his attempts to start domesticating crops and animals.
The on set of Neolithic culture is regarded as Lavant. The culture is said to have developed from the
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A civilization is included in the category of ancient civilizations if it holds a large number of historic places and cities which exhibit the influence of political and cultural characteristics of that time. Some of the major characteristics of ancient civilizations include high agricultural development, a centralized government, a written language, use of technology, legal codes, division of labor, social stratification, science, philosophy, and arts.
In ancient Egypt, women achieved near equality with its male counterparts in practically all aspects of life especially the professions. There possibly for the first time in history, women made great strides in practically all areas of endeavour excepting the military and government administration.
This is termed as the 'oasis hypothesis' as articulated by V. Gordon Childe which emphasises that it is the Nile which greatly influences the daily lives of the ancient Egyptians (Feder & Park 265).
But all the above theories were proved to be incomplete because archaelogical excavations in today's Sudan and southern Egypt in the vicinity of the Aswan High Dam revealed that there existed a civilization which predates the Egyptian civilization and which is even more complex and sophisticated than the latter.
The aim of this paper is to show that the factor of geography and environment played a very important role in ancient civilizations development, but geographical factor influence should be concerned together with other significant factors of development indicated above.
Civilization refers to the way of life of a people that has attained a high level of social organization. The basic unit of society is the family, several families grouped together make a tribe, and several tribes working for a common goal make a people or nation that share a common way of life or culture.
Mesopotamia was the region in within the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient Mesopotamia existed during the "Bronze Age" which was ruled by the Assyrian empire. The region is believed to be one of the four valleys accredited as the cradle of civilization where the first writings were found.
As the people moved and settled down in groups and began confining themselves in limited spaces changes began to be seen.
While these changes and revolutions in human life took place around the globe, North Africa was becoming a desert; initially before the desertification, inhabitants of this area were farmers and River Nile was a key source of livelihood to the people of North Africa.
The first civilizations emerged reservoir of some big rivers that can be dated back 5000 years ago and was then called “water civilizations”. Early civilizations were figured by ancient nations like Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China. The quintessence
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